He served as a Navy radioman on Guam during World War II and continued to enjoy amateur radio until the end of his life. Shifflett was a man with a strong work ethic and was a "very generous man. Most of the rest of the people making recommendations were politically connected fundraisers, lawmakers or local politicians. He was a member of St. It will shackle us to reality. Thomas -- David P.
The perpetual war, to end all peace - documenting the machinations of the world's most evil men
Hancock feigns indifference, turning his back on the stranger. There's a long silent mime interlude that never raises more than a few titters, the stranger is sizing up Tony's facial features, clearly a film director Denhom Elliott. After a long wait, this Peter introduces himself, his style is "I believe in showing life as it is. Or maybe deadpan as she hasn't any laughs, and knows Hancock hasn't much to bite on either. She's jaundiced against amateurs. Take 1, "no acting please," cries Peter, as Tony hams it up.
But then our lad forgets his lines, not at all amusing as he misses his cues in a husband and wife argument. He muddles his props in a reminder of amateur comedy night, it's painful.
This test drags on and on, Hancock on the end of slaps not only from his screen wife but also his young daughter Lucille. The Sins of the Father is this film, and somehow Tony gets the role, and in a reminiscence of the old lad, encourages himself in the mirror as day one on location looms.
It's a scene with Diane and Lucille, the wrong lines, a repeat of the previous disaster. However an unscripted char Hilda Barry livens it up, telling Hancock off for his treatment of his daughter. Peter decides the char makes "for a wonderful touch of realism," indeed she outacts the others, but of course they're supposed to be only acting, I think.
After getting slapped by wife and daughter once too often, the star quits. Maybe this was a parable of this show, what Hancock should have done. As it is, outside the local cinema is a poster of the star Diana, who is making a personal appearance.
When the pair meet, Hancock receives another slap, his only resort is to draw a beard on her picture, in a scene cribbed from The Big Night Hancock's Half Hour 5: Childish, yes, but it sums up the script volumes To Hancock Menu.
The Man on the Corner Today on the street corner Tony is chatting to a local policeman. He blames the H bomb for all the bad weather. When challenged as to what exactly he is doing, Tony explains he's watching people. Then he exchanges words with a bearded gent Wilfred Lawson , another who blames the bomb.
Now Tony espies a man and woman acting suspiciously, are they spies? Tony informs the policeman, who, sceptical, points Tony in the direction of the station, any station. For reasons unknown, Tony is now passed to the unflappable Col Beresford Geoffrey Keen , "I've yet to meet the man who can make me lose my temper. Tony describes these spies he's seen, the man indeed looking a lot like the colonel's assistant James Villiers. Instructions are given to Tony should he spot the spies again, all tongue in cheek.
He's to be agent 13, code name Canteen. Tony soon spots the spy again, following him to a chemist shop. In a pointless scene, Tony repeats all the words the spy says to the shop assistant. He must phone the canteen, "agent 13 reporting. As per instructions Tony moves in. Matthews in under arrest. Tony phones to inform the Canteen, who are less amused second time around. A foreign voice phones Matthews, "bring de microfilm. After several false alarms, Tony makes his second arrest.
A second scene showing the colonel's reaction to the arrests would have been more advantageous, though this is perhaps the best of the series, if that's saying anything. A fine supporting cast cash in on the current spy craze To Hancock Menu. A poor effort as Tony tries to show the DIY TV experts up, but the story is awfully predictable, and the chaos that ensues seems strangely reflective of the turmoil Hancock must have been feeling.
Night on the street, Tony helps an aged lamplighter Eddie Malin with his "dying art. Tony gives his commentary to a woman passer-by Barbara Mitchell. Is it a put up job? Tony offers to put Stan right on the niceties, a real craftsman he is. Next morning, donning his overalls, Tony explores the ironmongers, annoying the assistant, especially when it's evident he doesn't know the names of many tools, "a great big thing to bash it with.
After passing on his new found knowledge of tools, he hammers in some nails, badly. There won't be any mess queries an anxious Stan. Tony's real task is to erect a new wardrobe in Stan's wife's bedroom, a job Stan isn't confident enough to tackle himself. Before putting it up, there's much time talking, and creating something of a mess, as poor Stan's confidence is gradually eroded, though he politely refrains from comment.
Tony Hancock was never a slapstick comedian, and the sawing of a plank, wrongly measured, is not performed with enough enthusiasm or crassness to make it amusing. No wonder measurements are incorrect if the craftsman uses his arms to measure, then Stan's braces. Then there's Tony's ininextinguishable confidence in his own misplaced ability that never rings true, as Tony finally curses Arthur Fuller and his tv trick photography, and walks out on poor Stan, what a mess he leaves behind.
Next night, he sees the lamplighter again and tonight it's a gardening programme on telly. Tony adds his own commentary To Hancock Menu. The Night Out with Derek Nimmo. No start on a street corner this time, it's the morning after, the left overs of a giant party, Tony slumbering into life to jazzy downbeat music, in a mime sequence, before a waiter enters- he's in a hotel.
Tony can recall little, except he'd gone boozling with Tom. However he perks up when he finds a bird in his bed, "not bad," and this is the Bridal Suite! He tries to awake "Mrs Hancock," though he knows not her first name. After romanticising, Tony's flow is interrupted by Gavin Derek Nimmo who explains that this is Sarah, his, not Tony's, wife. Tony quizzes him over the events of the night. This he reiterates often, and Gavin keeps on assuring him no, "Good" replies Tony, but uneasily.
He commences singing the song again, in cha cha. Tony checks what happened by phone with Tom, but a delirious maid Patsy Smart interrupts, hugging him, calling him her Anton.
There's a pathetic story that she cannot stay with him, rather improbable too. We await a punchline, but it never comes. Now a crowd gathers, friends from last evening. More champers is ordered as Tony fights off Sarah's attentions, mainly to fawn over Gavin, whom he has discovered is gentry.
Gradually however the truth dawns on 'Tone,' he's footing the bill. Removing the unconsumed drink, 'Squadron Leader Hancock' complains at reception to the clerk Donald Hewlett.
A whip round, Tony proposes to his guests, but all too expectedly they vanish into the dawn. Tony, attempting to bunk also, is prevented by porters, and so has to flee via the upstairs window. Along a ledge, and into another room to another guest who is inebriated. Tony relates his sad tale and sings that song, and drinks more drink. The pair pick up another crowd and Tony is last seen booking into another hotel, "put it all down to me," he smiles. No, the punchline never came to that oft repeated question.
The story is as flat as that leftover champagne To the Hancock Menu. The Writer The tale of Tony's efforts as a poor tv scriptwriter, with too obvious parallels with this series' own abysmal scripts. This one by Terry Nation only goes to prove his writing talents lay not in the 'comedy' field.
This starts in an empty bar where Tony waits restlessly to be served. Having destroyed a bell, he moves to the adjoining bar, where a tv comic Jerry Spring - sic - John Junkin is getting ready to watch himself on tv. His scriptwriter Elmo Francis Matthews is at his side. After returning his broken empties, Tony purchases an Italian wine, Chateau Latour, as well as a small brown ale. After enthusing on English country life, he debunks this pub where anything and everything is banned. Tony watches the comedy on tv, introduced by Pete Murray.
Soon Tony is decrying "Britain's leading funnyman," to Jerry's discomfort. By now Jerry is getting quite worked up, until Tony spots who he is. Imparting his advice, Tony explains Jerry should include some funny walks in his act. Jerry laps it up, though naturally Elmo is not amused. Jerry however sees something in Tony, maybe he was desperate? Into the script conference walks a new Tony, dark glasses, loud suit.
Dressed over the top, Tony plays it over the top because the script is so dull. Listening to a taped conversation is plain tedious, this interspersed with numerous "can we please get on," but we never do. Finally Tony spits out a concrete idea Certainly impracticable, and Elmo is right to storm out.
Maybe the others ought to have taken his lead. Now Tony is on his own, composing a script, performing his Noel Coward impersonation. His typing skills are less good, and thinking up a single joke is even more problematic. This really is becoming like this real life series. After a long frustrating lack of inspiration, Tony resorts to Christmas crackers to obtain his material. As he reads over Tony's script, Jerry's eager smile turns to blankness.
At last one laugh. But it's only about "the way you spell trousers. An attempt to read through the script, Tony in the part of Blodwen to Jerry's Dai quickly dies the death and the script veers back to a sample of awful jokes, then impression of Marlon Brando, somewhere along the line Jerry sneaks out. Then there was one. Yes, that was a parable for Hancock. Maybe rather clever if you look on it as intentionally introspective, but surely not!
Tony returns to the pub to watch wrestling on tv. The viewer, the wrestler himself of course, takes excception to Tony's remarks and floors Tony, who never gets up.
He never did get up Amen. Click for more details: Lunch Box review of the only surviving show, plus details of some of the series. Celebrity Spot - length: The Morecambe and Wise Show Oct 1st Ernie is brilliantly unintelligible in a changing of the guard scene.
Then he points out Eric is going bald, leading to "a million" bald jokes. He recommends a toupee. However Millicent Martin spots the difference.
Jimmie Rodgers sings Lonesome Road. Eric and Ernie are two birds, Eric waiting for eggs to hatch has "hatcher's cramp. Freddie demonstrates to the boys his 'jumping bit' before singing.
With Sid and Dick, a game of pretend table tennis, Eric joins in, "you're not playing a mug. Jimmie Rodges sings I'll Say Goodbye before everyone joins in for a camp fire sing song. Eric messes it all up so is not allowed to sing.
Instead he stokes up the fire, and the whole set is smoked out. He shows Ernie an example of his art, taken through a keyhole, "my wife has a negligee like that. In a beard, Eric presents a French play, with a lady in a fur coat, but nothing underneath. Eric of course wants to rip it off, "not yet," is the oft repeated line. This is one of their classic sketches. Eric and Ernie's dancing partner has left them, so they have to perform their routine without her.
The sketch with their imaginary dancer becomes overlong. In pigtails, Millicent Martin sings The Day The Circus Left Town, with dancers weirdly dressed as animals, then clowns, quite surreal, Dali eat your heart out, then they are acrobats, certainly imaginative. Eric is given the part of the depressed Norman, you really need to know the series to enjoy the sketch. Rodney and Constance keep bursting into tears, not to mention depression that sweeps o'er Sid and Dick in hysterics, and though this is obvious there's a fine finish.
The opening show in September starring Gracie Fields and Guy Mitchell was seen in a mere , homes. In the first quarter of the highest total of viewers for the show in one week was 11,, Then by February , with the main ITV areas operational, the show reached five million homes for the first time. A November show saw that figure rise to 7,, The th show in April eclipsed that with a figure of 7,, homes. At that stage of the programmes had featured in the national Top Ten.
Lew Grade pulled the show in , had costs spiralled too much? In it was briefly revived, without credit to Parnell, but lasted only one season. The climate of variety had changed too much.
First show, top of bill are Pete and Dud October 3rd Special Guest Roy Orbison colour Autumn Larry Grayson January 6th with Englebert Humperdink. March 24th hosted by Ted Rogers. April 14th with Sacha Distel. December 1st Ten minutes of this show were captured on film.
It's enough to show the stunning size of the Palladium stage. After the opening extravaganza with dancers on several levels, on come the Kaye Sisters. Then Max Bygraves arrives on stage in a bubble car. April 13th The Tiller Girls start the entertainment with a peerless synchronised dance routine.
Enter, stage right, a beaming Tommy Trinder who stoops to pick up some litter, but no, it's one of Liberace's cast-offs. He has some topical jokes, including a complaint that there are "too many medical shows" on telly, and fantasises on what might happen if the BMA run the tv, shows like Sunday Night at the Clinic. Dick Shawn, first time on British television, has an interminably long routine, interminably unfunny too.
He's a teacher, and gives Tommy a well rehearsed and delivered reply to the query, "What do you teach? He is slightly nervous in his patter but gets a lorra laughs with huge slides of Liverpudlians as babies. Celebrities in the audience include Sylvia Sims, a footballer and two boxers. Arthur Haynes with Leslie Noyes stroll on stage complaining that they haven't been chosen to be on the bill as they do not "come from Liverpool," a phrase LN echoes repeatedly.
Mrs Haynes in the shape of Rita Webb comes on stage to er, sing, "what have you got to compare with that in Liverpool? Kenneth More enjoys a minute with JT before introducing Pete Seeger who gives us two songs, one with a very boring story.
After a nondescript dance with men in suits and diaphanous girls, here comes Frankie Howerd. He's "in a quandry," though also his confiding best, unsure what jokes to tell after Val Parnell had phoned him, "he riles easily. It's nearly flagging, but he keeps us laughing with a song accompanied by "a funny woman," With These Hands, "nobody goes to sleep while I'm on" Palladium menu. April 10th The Tiller girls dance with four men in wheelchairs, then Bruce joins in, entering in pyjamas and a false nose.
After which he talks openly and jokingly of course about his recent nose operation. Three French acrobats are followed by an odd toast from Bruce to The Ladies, a reference in particular to some golfing friends he's to join after the show.
Finally his new single Clementine. The final section of the show has the cast of The Most Happy Feller. As there's a minute to spare, Brucie, even though he must have been dying to get away to see his golfing ladies, joins in a final chorus To ATV Variety , or to Palladium menu. I was expecting Bruce to come on stage through the egg! But no, he enters conventionally, with talk of his holiday in the south of France.
The Dior Dancers give us an avant garde crime dance. The "adorable" Beryl Reid has gone oriental, she tells "Bluce. She finishes with a duet with Bruce. Rise Stevens sings in Italian, not a very tuneful choice, not ideal for this show.
But her next is more melodious, One Night of Love, and it's in English too. Beat the Clock has a returning couple from Cambridge. After which a couple from West Wickham never even have time to play their game. Bruce returns with an Adam Faith hairstyle and jacket, "I'm all ready then. Just as well, Bruce says they're both booked for summer shows in Blackpool To Palladium menu.
December 3rd - transmitted during the Equity strike. A tour de force, clearly well scripted, but was the famous decorating scene partly improvisation? Enter Norman Wisdom with a song announcing he's in charge tonight.
In protest the band leader exits, leaving Norman free to conduct. Bruce Forsyth comes on and sings and chases said conductor round the audience. Norman's attempt to tell a gag without laughing, is typical, but not him at his very best. It's impossible, he just has to laugh, and their timing is immaculate. Strip Joker they should have called it, and even Bruce can't help laughing.
The first stage scene is set to Morning by Grieg. It leads into Norman singing Me and My Imagination, and a mimed dance with invisible partners. Then the famous decorators scene, no dialogue until the end, simple effective slapstick, Norman the butt of the mess. Beat the Clock sees Norman interrupt proceedings, it all looks a little sparse with no hostess! Norman the singer sketch, interrupted by a phone call for Bruce, the old music hall gag as Norman obeys Bruce's instructions, but it's not overdone as Bruce chats to his darling.
Norman plays three instruments, sings Wearyin for You and plays three more instruments, the last one accompanied by Brice on the accordion. Finally number seven, percussion. Then he sings his theme song, not my favourite. There are still a couple of minutes, Bruce tells Norman. For a second he looks at Bruce, they both must have been pretty exhausted. So there's time to dance a duet, the polka and other dances. The final music, no revolving stage, except the base as the pair twirl into the curtains.
Thank goodness someone thought to preserve this one! December 10th Sadly only part one has been preserved in non standard form. It includes some pre show scenes which the Network dvd rather sadly describes as by a "warm-up man. Bruce enters prostrate on the revolving stage, exhausted after the previous Sunday's show with Norman Wisdom. But he's up for singing Getting to Know You and gets to know some of his audience in the way only Brucie can, some nice reactions proving he's the master of the impromptu interview.
He has some enjoyable reminiscing with Ray Ellington, as they pick out members of Jack Parnell's Orchestra, then they sing together a jazzed up version of The Three Bears. Time for a tap dance with his then wife Penny.
Nothing if not an old fashioned song and dance act, but very charmingly put over To Palladium. JT's impressions of Hancock etc fall flat and the gags are weak too. The pair have a better topical song, O Mr Tarbuck, then dance, proving that Sid was never one dimensional.
JT talks about Cassius Clay's recent bout, and about the Christmas lights. Famous names in the audience include Ralph Reader. A lively dance opens part three. Des O'Connor, standup comedian, gives his thoughts on Women, perhaps the best part of his act is his cheeky laugh.
It certainly ain't Women's Lib. Tony Martin is the ageing top of the bill. Finally People Need People Palladium. Sunday Night at the London Palladium - 22nd March After the usual opening with The Tiller Girls, Bruce Forsyth enters, still drooling over the previous week's guest Ethel Merman- only a pity that that show isn't preserved! BF performs some lively numbers in her honour and naughtily speculates where Ethel might have hidden her mike.
Then he introduces The Trapinos, comedy acrobats, after which he apologises for calling them "The Traponis. In Beat the Clock, BF is assisted by Sally and has contestants from Goodmayes where's that near asks the compere politely , and Worcester. The final part is graced by an attractive "old street cloth" of London as Billy Russell William Cassius Russell he calls hisself performs an updated version of his classic On Behalf of the Working Classes, "five minutes," he confides to us, "then the axe drops.
Top of the bill is the awfully lively, but to me uninspiring, Spanish dancer Antonio, with Rosario. Fifteen minutes too long To Palladium. New Palladium Show September 26th First of the revamped series, introduced still by the 'Startime' theme.
And now hosted by Jimmy Tarbuck, who had made his name on the old Palladium show back in October He bounces on, through a brick wall, singing, then describing his send off from Liverpool as he set off for his new job. He also talks about the greats on previous Palladium shows, with occasional interruptions in the orchestra pit from "Hack" Jack Parnell.
First guests are Peter Paul and Mary who give us three numbers, ending with the tale of Samson. Then the new feature, the unannounced special guest, here Sarah Miles, a little gauche, trying to plug her latest picture. JT ushers her along. She then introduces a trio of guests: After another dance, JT pans round the audience for interesting people. October 24th Michael Bentine starts the show as The Great Sebastian, in a sketch clearly held over from the previous week.
Then the dancers perform a bouncy medley of Roaring Twenties numbers. Enter JT on a toy car, the latest mechanical wonder from Japan. He introduces Eleanor Toner who renders Danny Boy. That's followed by The Fortunes with their latest hit. Topo Gigio, if you like him, is on stage, JT has an intimate chat, trying his best. The show concludes with comedian Frank Berry, then The Bachelors.
After the pitched battle, out from his auto steps George Raft. Why are you over here, asks JT. Both muff a line. JT gives a few easy gangster impressions. Raft tells us that he introduced the bolero into Britain in at the Florida Club, and he proves he can still do it, albeit more slowly, pretty well done. JT speculates on future honours for showbiz stars.
David Nixon tales a tale of two ropes. Then a long card trick. Hugh Lambert and the Palladium Dancers give us a dance, simple and effectively choreographed.
In between he mumbles something. He dances off at the end. Spike Milligan tops the bill. He'd made two appearances earlier on. Now he has a limerick, a song and joke about Laura, then a folk song, "they all sound the same. November 21st JT enters to the background of a wall with graffiti including 'Tarby's back. He starts the first part of the show carrying this crown, allegedly it was left behind after the Royal Variety Performance!
JT has some topical gags about the gales, and ad libs about the fun had during the ad break, having to quickly move the Parnell band down to the pits. Then he introduces Robert Harbin illusionist though he calls him "Robin".
To finish there's a medley of Cliff's four golden discs To Palladium. March 20th in colour Jimmy Tarbuck opens with a brief rendition of Pretty Woman, a foretaste of what's to come later. It's "Mum's Day," he tells us. Then he sings and dances A Dedicated Follower of Fashion, a lively colourful number. After The Biasinis, a couple of trick cyclists, JT talks dully about his golf and then introduces Julie Rogers who sings two numbers, including My Room.
Sylvan is a "card manipulator" who performs various amazing tricks. Then JT delves into the Tarby archive with childhood memories, or is that childish? The final part opens with Celebrity Time, including Erika Remberg who is to be "the leading lady in the new Saint series" poetic licence there , plus a Parisian fashion designer. Bob Monkhouse is the first act, "nobody cares about nostalgia," he gripes.
So he does his up to date pop star routine. Tom Jones sings two numbers during the show, after which Kate thanks him admiringly, "you've got a beat. Morecambe and Wise top the bill, also singing with Millicent Martin in their own inimitable way Moonlight Becomes You. Perhaps Mr Monkhouse was wrong, for this show was just full of olde tyme songs! Judy and Liza at the Palladium transmitted Sunday December 20th recorded Nov 15th It's slightly difficult to judge the performance, since the programme was edited from a longer show.
But it does commence with wild applause and goes straight into songs, no introduction at all. Judy sings Once in a Lifetime, and Just in Time, becoming more animated as this second song progresses. She introduces Liza who has a fine Gipsy in my Soul. Judy and Liza then perform a medley, not the most attractive versions of some of the numbers. The audience shout some requests, you can guess what, before Judy sings from Funny Face.
Judy sits on the stage floor, watching Liza with the poweful Who's Sorry Now. After more requests Judy admits, "I can't learn any new ones," and sings San Francisco, now much more fresh with her appreciative audience. Then at last, Over the Rainbow, she spends a lot of the time cajoling them to join in. Then enter Larry Grayson with his bicycle dressed as an onion seller. He sings a sultry song with his usual nice self parody. Then less happily, host Jim Dale comes on to imitate the mime art of the great Marcel, the best that can be said is that he's an acquired taste, JD that is.
Paul Anka starts his act with Flashback, a tuneless piece of morbidity, then gives us his pleasing rendition of his own song My Way, with some fine camerawork to match the song. Finally a medley, starting off inevitably with Diana. The games are tediously uninspiring, tying huge knots, then passing groceries while cooped up in a large bag.
Finally cymbals burst big balloons. After a song from Jim, there's a clever clever tap dance that looks twenty years behind the times, except for the novel use of the invisible backdrop. The top star Larry returns, with his usual asides to Jack Parnell, such as "I've got the worms.
January 6th This show never got transmitted On the Network dvd is a composite that includes a recording of a Cliff Richard performance, he dressed in white and green. What seems to be from the programme that should have been shown is Jim Dale with a topical reference to why the show wasn't put out. He reads a viewer's poem, awful, including a reference to Ted Heath, then he appeals for much such poems, surely not.
Bob Monkhouse follows with a 'sermon,' including reference to the national crisis. He does a take off of Jess Yates, with wig. Then his own up to date version of Deck of Cards, jokes aimed at contemporary artists like Jimmy Tarbuck and Des O'Connor and lots of others.
The star is Englebert Humperdink, eight years on from his first Palladium performance. Ted Rogers with a photo of Larry Grayson borrows too many of his gags. Some up to date satire on London's Third Airport, a sit-in at Essex University, plus other feeble quips. Allan Stewart gives us two outdated songs, plus oddly some impersonations, slightly excruciating.
My kindest comment is that he has a fine individual voice. The New Dolly's thus in the screen credits provide us with more traditional dancing. Better are their cycling acrobatics, distinctly different. Ted reminds us with some gags that it's Mothers Day. Then Clodagh Rogers sings three lively numbers, two oldies plus her latest, Get Together. Second Generation again, some jaunty ragtime which could be to your taste. Top of the Bill are Mike and Bernie Winters.
They look a trifle weary, perhaps explained that this is just a stop-off from Belfast en route to Germany. They joke about the management, that "they've gone to no expense," and give us some corny holiday jokes, here's a sample: April 14th 14th April - last of the series A lively modern dance by the Second Generation for starters.
Ted Rogers' introductory jokes are about Easter, the recent wild Celtic v Athletico Madrid match, about rising pterol prices 56p a gallon! To start part two Ted hands Jack Parnell a disc celebrating the sale of his ,th record. Then Nino a juggler gets good rounds of applause. Ted gives some weak feminist jokes, "I should be that funny. The Second Generation perform a gospel song with a dance that doesn't fit at all, despite the clever visual effects. Sacha Distel, not a raindrop in sight, is top of the bill.
He gives us three typical songs, including naturally his latest single. In between, Ted comes on, complimenting him on his great smile. Sacha asks to be taught how to tell jokes, I'm not sure if this is a great success, despite a good punchline To the Palladium menu.
From to , they included Saturday Spectacular, and a mid week variety show normally named Spectacular or Startime. Sometimes these had casts unannounced in TV Times, making research difficult. Reviews of some surviving shows: Val Parnell's Spectacular Saturday October 1st 7.
The opening is a dance among huge organ pipes, vaguely churchy. Then Ernie introduces Eric who explains he had been pumping the organ. He then prepares for the first guest, Ronnie Brody brings on the prop, but is sent off, for it is not time for the big star yet. They look a throwback to at least ten years previously. Jack Parnell is on drums for another dance. Ernie thinks Eric could be "a teenage rave" if he dresses the part.
This is a prelude to Emile Ford who sings the plaintive Scarlet Ribbons. Then the more lively Them There Eyes. Tiptoe Through The Tulips is another dance routine, harking back 30 years. Then Eric turns up wearing Emile Ford's costume, more could have been made of this. Then with a few insults, Max Jaffa comes on, playing his violin in an even more dated number.
After this, it's the cue for Eric with his own violin before Patrice Munsel sings, firstly an opera number, then That Old Black Magic, a little too tunelessly. Early Call is a Ballet for Television- well it is different, a mime of workers getting up early only to find it's Sunday.
Finally it's time for the star, but, oh dear, they have forgotten his name. Perhaps not one of director Francis Essex's most spectacular efforts. You can see why contemporary critics panned a lot of these variety shows To Spectacular Menu.
Rashly he invites a gentleman in the audience to assist him- AH! Ken Morris plays the honky tonk as two girls pull his piano across the stage. That's followed by his accompanying a dance mime in silhouette. AH asks the value of jewels in NP's shop, with an expected payoff. As the pair share a drink and swap photos, AH happily continues his criminal activity.
In the second big sketch, in thick snow, AH puts up at a lonely hotel. NP turns up but there is not room, so AH kindly offers him his room- at four times the price. They fight over bedspace and AH is expectedly irritating and NP explodes as usual.
Note- entertaining is one technician who gets in camera view accidentally. Later a hand grabs away the bedside lamp, in such a hurry preparing for the finale. This is a dance with the whole cast, except AH who is watching back in the audience Spectacular Menu. Lionel Blair and Joyce sing and dance appealingly Just in Time. The French version is the best sketch of the show, but that's not saying much for Jimmy Grafton and Alan Fell dream up an awful script unworthy of the stars, who struggle to get more than a titter.
Diana sings Imagination by the fireside some nice sets in this Albert Locke production , before the most interesting sketch from our viewpoint of today. Unfortunately Alan Wheatley can't sing at all well at the start, though he improves. The Guy Mitchell Show Sat Feb 27th There's a pleasant cabaret setting, but also evidence that Mitchell was underrehearsed and that he is no comedian. He opens with Bye Bye Blackbird then there is a long section with child prodigy violinist 14 year old Florica Remetier, who plays pieces by Kreisler, a Romanian tune and her own composition.
Ventriloquist Dennis Spicer as a dummy is clever, revealing at the end "Oswald was no dummy. Janet Ball and two partners dance to Let's Face the Music. Alma starts by singing with the credits on slides behind her. Adam Faith takes up the tune, then the other guests, emerging from large parcels on stage.
Alma sings a jazzy Night and Day, Jack Parnell's arrangement a little too obtrusive, as in one later number. The inevitable Teddy and Pearl appear, "the greatest singing act in the business," according to Alma.
There are three songs with them. Bill Finch is a dancing juggler, not that impressive, but there is one section in the dark with his twinkling lighted stick that is visually appealing. Magician Don Alan clearly impresses Alma with his trickery. Alma sings a loud version of Begin the Beguine.
Then she sings an intro for twenty year old Adam Faith. Then his latest record, Lonely Pup. The couple then sit on a large globe, they explain they have changed the song so it is an irrelevant prop! The new song is I Remember it Well. Alma sings and dances with them, it's mainly that standard Cheek to Cheek. Then Alma and he sing There Once was a Man. To finish, the stars return for a final bow. Freddie Frinton drifts in and out aimlessly between sketches, I suppose this is why there is a credit to Johnny Speight as scriptwriter, though Frinton's script of a tottering drunk writes itself, the rest could only have taken half an hour to compose.
Freddie declares to Alma, "I hope I haven't been too much of a nuisance," perhaps he should have been ejected, he's given little enough chance to develop his routine To Spectacular Menu. Stan Stennett interrupts before Anne Shelton sings. The three of them give a daft Spanish comedy number. After flirting with Jo Shelton she sings then Hughie Green chats her up. Lonnie sings out part one and sings in part two with some whistling. He reminisces and jokes with Hughie and they sing and dance with Jo.
Lonnie sings a couple of numbers and then The World Outside. The Dallas Boys then perform. Lonnie ends with Gamblin' Man Series 2: Jan 11th , last of a group of three shows. Lonnie with Chris Barber's Band. Lonnie sings 'Hard Travellin' and 'John Hardy' etc as well as one number in which the mike gives out! The scripts partly written by Trevor Peacock were dire, Lonnie would surely have been better advised to stick to what he was brilliant at.
Lynn Cornell sings As Long As. An unfunny sketch with LD as a zoo keeper with Monica the Elephant who is apparently sitting on some woman. Des O'Connor Show Des reads us some viewers' letters, alleged letters.
He seeks advice how to improve his image with the teenagers, sings a duet Make Your Own Kind of Music and finally dances the Funky Chicken. Mireille Mathieu sings, then there's A Tale from the Forum: As Des aptly comments, "what a load of rubbish this is.
Des sings Loneliness, and Mireille joins in, with pleasing effect. Phyllis becomes a sex symbol, or is she, according to Des, Bugs Bunny? She has a jealous husband, bringing on a mini-farce that mostly falls flat until a good final punchline.
Des sings With These Hands. Lonnie Donegan joins him to give Des some advice on his forthcoming trip to America. They sing the lively After Taxes. Johnnie Ray Sings Four shows that were made in Britain at the end of the 's.
The Big Show US title: Showtime ATV attempted to make a variety show that appealed to both sides of the Atlantic, but somewhere in mid-Atlantic the show sunk.
Amongst the dross, search for a few minor gems. Give us back The London Palladium Show. T-T threads his way through the chorus line to introduce Tanya the elephant via a rather weak story, "I wish I hadn't said that.
She's pretty far gone as she sings Sweet Mamma. Lunch Box This popular Midlands series started in Though it was rehearsed, it had the appearance of an impromptu performance, not amateurish but almost like the sort of show anyone could knock up. It was surely the personality of Noele Gordon that kept it going so long, a real trouper. The opening theme was 'For a Happy.
My review of apparently the only surviving Lunch Box Wednesday February 12th A cancan with three dancers, a tour de force of mediocrity in the cramped studio space. She tells us they'd only got to bed at 4. The boys weren't back until 5! NG reveals this show is being telerecorded. But then this wasn't the best show to choose, in view of NG's earlier remarks.
Lunch Box clock shows After Shopping List there's Memory Lane: Why Do I Love You? The clock shows 1. NG discreetly apologises, "well, they were very late you know last night. Some repartee suggests time needs filling out. JA Trio play Airmail Special. NG comes over to thank them, the boys can now have a lie down until their next work, on the Carrol Levis Show tonight at 10pm.
Music by the Jerry Allen Trio. You'd be right in saying that this series, built around Noele, started life as the Wednesday afternoon series The starting time varied slightly, but this series ran until January September saw the launch of Lunch Box, David Main produced some shows. David Galbraith became a regular, starting in December It was around Christmas that Noele began hosting the programmes on Tuesdays to Thursdays, who was in charge at the start and end of the week was not stated.
But when 'Teatime' was stopped at the end of January , Noele was able to be hostess on Lunch Box every day, with the length of the show reduced from This arrangement didn't last long, though the show did return to the London area at the start of for some months.
McTweedle, "he never smiles, never says a word," appeared in April and became a regular on the show for a time. Special guest for the whole week began to be announced in the spring. One of the first was to become a familiar face on the show, Eula Parker who was contracted to appear every other week April 8th to 12th , then May 27th week etc etc. An ATV spokesman stated, "Eula produced the largest audience reaction we have had for any singer on this programme.
Letters, telephone calls and viewing figures all pointed to her popularity. She was clearly the most successful singer, so we invited her to sign on. Doreen Orme March 25th week: Lynn Cristie April 15th week: Julie Dey April 22nd week: Annette Klooger April 29th week: Sheila Buxton May 20th week: Joyce Clark June 17th week: Teresa Waters th edition Thursday June 27th July 1st week: Terry Burton July 15th week: Sheila Buxton July 29th week: Julie Dawn Aug 12th week: Diana Coupland Sept 2nd week: Anita Louise Sept 9th week: Patti Lewis Oct 7th week: Joyce Clark Oct 21st week: Leoni Page Dec 2nd week: Diana Coupland Christmas Week Sheila Buxton and Terry Burton Of course regulars needed holiday, and Jack Barton was temporarily the producer at the end of July and during early August.
He also hosted on Oct 23rd to 25th. Jan 6th week: Joyce Clark Jan 13th week: Joan Small Jan 20th week: Joyce Shock Jan 27th week: Diana Coupland Feb 3rd week: Terry Burton The starting time was now Joyce Clarke Mar 3rd week: Terry Burton Mar 10th week: Eula Parker and others including in Apr 21st week, Aug 11th week, Sept 15th week, Oct 20th week, Nov 17th week, Dec 15th week, 22nd week May 12th week: Joan Small July 7th week: Diana Coupland Aug 18th week: Pat Marian her debut on the show Sept 1st week: Joyce Clark Sept 22nd week: Terry Burton Sept 29th week: Joan Small Oct 13th week: Tricia Payne previously known as Pat Marian Among the changes to the regulars: Jean Morton often hosted each Monday during February to May Roy Edwards replaced David Galbraith in summer as a vocalist.
Monday April 28th show was from Stourport School Worcester. The lunchtime News from ITN was included from this summer. In the autumn, the length of the programme was reduced to 40 minutes Wednesday September 17th was a special show, the rd performance of Lunch Box! It was also the show's second anniversary. Christmas Day, and renamed Christmas Box, the show ran for 75 minutes and had a pantomime flavour. The MacTweedles were also on hand. For , the News now preceded the show, which began at 1.
Some Thursday editions included Bongo with Noele Gordon, a musical quiz on the lines of Take Your Pick- normally five contestants per show. When she invited viewers to send in an answer, 40, people replied. Noelle had a break when Jean Morton hosted the show for the week commencing June 8th.
For the first time, the show went on the road on Wed July 22nd , to meet Wolverhampton viewers at Goodyear Park. The format returned to that of late during July, starting Jack Barton produced a few of the shows and was the regular producer by the end of that year. He introduced the concept of 'themed' shows, for example the shows in the last full week of November were based on Fleet Street.
By Christmas the end time was 1. In , the show continued Tuesdays to Fridays, It was seen in the Midlands area only. Noele Gordon was ill at the start of Feb , and Jean Morton took over the hostess role in her absence. A landmark came on Tuesday September 20th, with the 1, programme. One special was on December 23rd when for the first time, the audience was of housebound pensioners: Margaret French, an administrator on the show, said it was " a nice Christmas present for folk who rarely get a chance of going out.
Eula Parker was back in the week before Christmas, finish time back to 1. One special show was on the day of the Royal Wedding, June 8th , which ran from The first ever Mum in a Million competition was held, viewers invited to nominate candidates.
The winner was Mrs Adeline Hickson of Leicester. Though Jack Barton was still producer, Bryan Izzard is credited with directing some of the shows. In this the Government was supported by the Liberal Party and, officially at least, by the Conservative Party. Churchill denounced the Round Table Conference. At a meeting of the West Essex Conservative Association, specially convened so that Churchill could explain his position, he said "It is alarming and also nauseating to see Mr Gandhi, a seditious Middle Temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir of a type well known in the East, striding half-naked up the steps of the Vice-regal palace Two incidents damaged Churchill's reputation within the Conservative Party in this period.
Both were taken as attacks on the Conservative front bench. The first was his speech on the eve of the St George by-election in April In a safe Conservative seat, the official Conservative candidate Duff Cooper was opposed by Ernest Petter , an independent Conservative. Petter was supported by Lord Rothermere , Lord Beaverbrook and their respective newspapers. Although arranged before the by-election was set,  Churchill's speech was seen as supporting the independent candidate and as a part of the press barons' campaign against Baldwin.
Baldwin's position was strengthened when Duff Cooper won, and when the civil disobedience campaign in India ceased with the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. The second issue was a claim by Churchill that Sir Samuel Hoare and Lord Derby had pressured the Manchester Chamber of Commerce to change evidence it had given to the Joint Select Committee considering the Government of India Bill, and in doing so had breached parliamentary privilege. He had the matter referred to the House of Commons Privilege Committee which, after investigations in which Churchill gave evidence, reported to the House that there had been no breach.
Churchill was unable to find a single supporter in the House and the debate ended without a division. Churchill permanently broke with Baldwin over Indian independence and never again held any office while Baldwin was prime minister. Some historians see his basic attitude to India as being set out in his book My Early Life In the s, Churchill supported the idea of a "reconciliation" between Germany and France with Britain serving as the "honest broker" for the reconciliation".
In , Churchill said: It is not in British interests to antagonize France". In , Churchill accepted the presidency of the newly founded New Commonwealth Society , a peace organisation which he described in as "one of the few peace societies that advocates the use of force, if possible overwhelming force, to support public international law". Churchill's initial attitude towards the fascist dictators was ambiguous.
After the First World War defeat of Germany, a new danger occupied conservatives' political consciousness—the spread of communism. A newspaper article penned by Churchill and published on 4 February , had warned that "civilisation" was threatened by the Bolsheviks , a movement which he linked through historical precedence to Jewish conspiracy.
This movement among the Jews is not new However, in this article, Churchill praised the Jews who had integrated into the national life of the countries in which they lived "while adhering faithfully to their own religion", contrasting them with those who had "forsaken the faith of their forefathers" and come to play an influential role in the rise of the Bolshevik movement.
Due in part to his childhood exposure to his father's many Jewish friends and associates, Churchill was a lifelong, fervent opponent of antisemitism and a supporter of the Zionist movement. In , he warned against the League of Nations opposing the Japanese in Manchuria: On the one side they have the dark menace of Soviet Russia. On the other the chaos of China , four or five provinces of which are being tortured under communist rule.
Speaking in the House of Commons in , Churchill said, "I will not pretend that, if I had to choose between communism and Nazism, I would choose communism. These three topics remained his themes until early In , he was one of the founding members of The Focus , which brought together people of differing political backgrounds and occupations who were united in seeking "the defence of freedom and peace.
Churchill, holidaying in Spain when the Germans reoccupied the Rhineland in February , returned to a divided Britain. The Labour opposition was adamant in opposing sanctions and the National Government was divided between advocates of economic sanctions and those who said that even these would lead to a humiliating backdown by Britain as France would not support any intervention.
Taylor later called this "an appointment rightly described as the most extraordinary since Caligula made his horse a consul. Duff Cooper was opposed to Churchill's appointment, while General Ellison wrote that he had "only one comment, and that is 'Thank God we are preserved from Winston Churchill.
This meeting prompted Baldwin to comment that it was "the time of year when midges came out of dirty ditches". Neville Chamberlain was also taking a growing interest in foreign affairs, and in June, as part of a power-bid at the expense of the young and pro-League of Nations Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden , he demanded an end to sanctions against Italy "the very midsummer of madness".
There had been demands for a Secret Session of the House and the senior ministers agreed to meet the deputation rather than listen to a potential four-hour speech by Churchill. Churchill's figures for the size of the Luftwaffe, leaked to him by Ralph Wigram at the Foreign Office, were less accurate than those of the Air Ministry and he believed that the Germans were preparing to unleash thermite bombs "the size of an orange" on London.
Ministers stressed that Hitler's intentions were unclear, and the importance of maximising Britain's long-term economic strength through exports, whereas Churchill wanted 25—30 percent of British industry to be brought under state control for purposes of rearmament.
Baldwin argued that the important thing had been to win the election to get "a perfectly free hand" for rearmament. The meeting ended with Baldwin agreeing with Churchill that rearmament was vital to deter Germany. On 12 November, Churchill returned to the topic. Speaking in the Address in Reply debate, after giving some specific instances of Germany's war preparedness, he said "The Government simply cannot make up their mind or they cannot get the Prime Minister to make up his mind.
So they go on in strange paradox, decided only to be undecided, resolved to be irresolute, adamant for drift, solid for fluidity, all powerful for impotency.
And so we go on preparing more months more years precious perhaps vital for the greatness of Britain for the locusts to eat. The exchange gave new encouragement to the Arms and the Covenant Movement.
Churchill then advised against the marriage and said he regarded Mrs Simpson's existing marriage as a 'safeguard'. In November, he declined Lord Salisbury 's invitation to be part of a delegation of senior Conservative backbenchers who met with Baldwin to discuss the matter. On 25 November he, Attlee and Liberal Party leader Archibald Sinclair met with Baldwin, were told officially of the King's intention, and asked whether they would form an administration if Baldwin and the National Government resigned should the King not take the Ministry's advice.
Both Attlee and Sinclair said they would not take office if invited to do so. Churchill's reply was that his attitude was a little different but he would support the government. The Abdication crisis became public, coming to a head in the first two weeks of December At this time, Churchill publicly gave his support to the King. The first public meeting of the Arms and the Covenant Movement was on 3 December. Churchill was a major speaker and later wrote that in replying to the Vote of Thanks, he made a declaration 'on the spur of the moment' asking for delay before any decision was made by either the King or his Cabinet.
On 4 December, he met with the King and again urged delay in any decision about abdication. On 5 December, he issued a lengthy statement implying that the Ministry was applying unconstitutional pressure on the King to force him to make a hasty decision. He was shouted down. Seemingly staggered by the unanimous hostility of all Members, he left. Churchill's reputation in Parliament and England as a whole was badly damaged. Some, such as Alistair Cooke , saw him as trying to build a King's Party.
Some such as A. Taylor see it as being an attempt to 'overthrow the government of feeble men'. James, view Churchill's motives as honourable and disinterested, in that he felt deeply for the King.
Churchill later sought to portray himself as an isolated voice warning of the need to rearm against Germany. While it is true that he had a small following in the House of Commons during much of the s, he was given privileged information by some elements within the government, particularly by disaffected civil servants in the War Ministry and Foreign Office. The "Churchill group" in the latter half of the decade consisted of only himself, Duncan Sandys and Brendan Bracken.
It was isolated from the other main factions within the Conservative Party in pressing for faster rearmament and a stronger foreign policy;   one meeting of anti-Chamberlain forces decided that Churchill would make a good Minister of Supply.
Even during the time Churchill was campaigning against Indian independence, he received official and otherwise secret information. Lord Swinton , as Secretary of State for Air , and with Baldwin's approval, in gave Churchill access to official and otherwise secret information.
Swinton did so, knowing Churchill would remain a critic of the government, but believing that an informed critic was better than one relying on rumour and hearsay. On 3 September , the day Britain declared war on Germany following the outbreak of the Second World War, Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty, the same position he had held during the first part of the First World War.
As such he was a member of Chamberlain's small War Cabinet. In this position, he proved to be one of the highest-profile ministers during the so-called " Phoney War ", when the only noticeable action was at sea and the USSR's attack on Finland. Churchill planned to penetrate the Baltic with a naval force. This was soon changed to a plan involving the mining of Norwegian waters to stop iron ore shipments from Narvik and provoke Germany into attacking Norway, where it could be defeated by the Royal Navy.
On 10 May , hours before the German invasion of France by a lightning advance through the Low Countries , it became clear that, following failure in Norway, the country had no confidence in Chamberlain's prosecution of the war and so Chamberlain resigned. The commonly accepted version of events states that Lord Halifax turned down the post of prime minister because he believed he could not govern effectively as a member of the House of Lords instead of the House of Commons.
Although a prime minister does not traditionally advise the King on a prime minister's own successor, Chamberlain wanted someone who would command the support of all three major parties in the House of Commons. A meeting between Chamberlain, Halifax, Churchill, and David Margesson , the government Chief Whip , led to the recommendation of Churchill, and, as constitutional monarch, George VI asked Churchill to be prime minister. Churchill's first act was to write to Chamberlain to thank him for his support.
Churchill was still unpopular with many Conservatives and the Establishment ,   who opposed his replacing Chamberlain; the former prime minister remained party leader until dying in November.
People said they didn't know what Britain would do without him. He was obviously respected. But no one felt he would be Prime Minister after the war.
He was simply the right man in the right job at the right time. The time being the time of a desperate war with Britain's enemies.
An element of British public and political sentiment favoured a negotiated peace with Germany, among them Halifax as Foreign Secretary. Over three days in May 26—28 May , there were repeated discussions within the War Cabinet of whether the UK should associate itself with French approaches to Mussolini to use his good offices with Hitler to seek a negotiated peace: Various interpretations are possible of this episode , and of Churchill's argument that "it was idle to think that, if we tried to make peace now, we should get better terms than if we fought it out", but throughout Churchill seems to have opposed any immediate peace negotiations.
Coining the general term for the upcoming battle, Churchill stated in his "finest hour" speech to the House of Commons on 18 June, "I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin. In response to previous criticisms that there had been no clear single minister in charge of the prosecution of the war, Churchill created and took the additional position of Minister of Defence , making him the most powerful wartime prime minister in British history. It has been argued that it was Beaverbrook's business acumen that allowed Britain to quickly gear up aircraft production and engineering, which eventually made the difference in the war.
Churchill's speeches were a great inspiration to the embattled British. His first as prime minister was the famous "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat " speech. One historian has called its effect on Parliament "electrifying". The House of Commons that had ignored him during the s "was now listening, and cheering". One included the words:. Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves, that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, ' This was their finest hour '.
At the height of the Battle of Britain, his bracing survey of the situation included the memorable line " Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few ", which engendered the enduring nickname The Few for the RAF fighter pilots who won it.
This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning. Without having much in the way of sustenance or good news to offer the British people, he took a risk in deliberately choosing to emphasise the dangers instead. And he can convince himself of almost every truth if it is once allowed thus to start on its wild career through his rhetorical machinery. The war energised Churchill, who was 65 years old when he became Prime Minister.
Stating that he was the only top leader from World War I who still had an important political job, John Gunther wrote that Churchill "looks ten years younger than he is". Knickerbocker wrote that "The responsibilities which are his now must be greater than those carried by any other human being on earth.
One would think such a weight would have a crushing effect upon him. The last time I saw him, while the Battle of Britain was still raging, he looked twenty years younger than before the war began His uplifted spirit is transmitted to the people". For security, he usually travelled using the alias Colonel Warden. Since the appearance in of Lord Moran 's memoir of his years as Churchill's doctor, with its claim that "Black Dog" was the name Churchill gave to "the prolonged fits of depression from which he suffered",  many authors have suggested that throughout his life Churchill was a victim of, or at risk from, clinical depression.
Formulated in this way, Churchill's mental health history contains unmistakable echoes of the seminal interpretation of Lord Moran's Black Dog revelations made by Dr Anthony Storr. In drawing so heavily on Moran for what he took to be the latter's totally reliable, first-hand clinical evidence of Churchill's lifelong struggle with "prolonged and recurrent depression" and its associated "despair", Storr produced a seemingly authoritative and persuasive diagnostic essay that, in the words of John Ramsden , "strongly influenced all later accounts.
However, Storr was not aware that Moran, as Moran's biographer Professor Richard Lovell has shown and contrary to the impression created in Moran's book, kept no diary, in the usual sense of the word, during his years as Churchill's doctor. Nor was Storr aware that Moran's book as published was a much rewritten account which mixed together Moran's contemporaneous jottings with later material acquired from other sources. As Wilfred Attenborough demonstrated, the key Black Dog 'diary' entry for 14 August was an arbitrarily dated pastiche in which the explicit reference to Black Dog—the first of the few in the book with an associated footnote definition of the term —was taken, not from anything Churchill had said to Moran, but from much later claims made to Moran by Bracken in Despite the difficulties with Moran's book, the many illustrations it provides of a Churchill understandably plunged into temporary low mood by military defeats and other severely adverse developments constitute a compelling portrait of a great man reacting to, but not significantly impeded by, worry and overstrain, a compelling portrait that is entirely consistent with the portraits of others who worked closely with Churchill.
Churchill himself seems, in a long life, to have written about Black Dog on one occasion only: Moran himself leaned strongly in the direction of his patient being "by nature very apprehensive";  close associates of Churchill have disputed the idea that apprehension was a defining feature of Churchill's temperament, although they readily concede that he was noticeably worried and anxious about some matters, especially in the buildup to important speeches in the House of Commons and elsewhere.
According to Lord Moran, during the war years Churchill sought solace in his tumbler of whisky and soda and his cigar. Churchill was also a very emotional man, unafraid to shed tears when appropriate. During some of his broadcast speeches it was noticed that he was trying to hold back the tears.
Nevertheless, although the fall of Tobruk was, by Churchill's own account, "one of the heaviest blows" he received during the war,  there seem to have been no tears. Certainly, the next day Moran found him animated and vigorous. For example, in his diary  entry for 10 September It is far better that the world should never know, and never suspect the feet of clay of this otherwise superhuman being. Without him England was lost for a certainty, with him England has been on the verge of disaster time and again Never have I admired and despised a man simultaneously to the same extent.
Never have such opposite extremes been combined in the same human being. Roosevelt —between and they exchanged an estimated letters and telegrams and met 11 times; Churchill estimated that they had days of close personal contact  —helped secure vital food, oil and munitions via the North Atlantic shipping routes.
It was for this reason that Churchill was relieved when Roosevelt was re-elected in Upon re-election, Roosevelt immediately set about implementing a new method of providing military hardware and shipping to Britain without the need for monetary payment.
Roosevelt persuaded Congress that repayment for this immensely costly service would take the form of defending the US; and so Lend-Lease was born. Churchill had 12 strategic conferences with Roosevelt which covered the Atlantic Charter , Europe first strategy, the Declaration by United Nations and other war policies.
The Russians referred to him as the "British Bulldog. Churchill was party to treaties that would redraw post-Second World War European and Asian boundaries. At the Second Quebec Conference in he drafted and, together with Roosevelt, signed a less-harsh version of the original Morgenthau Plan , in which they pledged to convert Germany after its unconditional surrender "into a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character.
Truman , Churchill, and Joseph Stalin at Potsdam. Churchill's strong relationship with Harry Truman was of great significance to both countries. While he clearly regretted the loss of his close friend and counterpart Roosevelt, Churchill was enormously supportive of Truman in his first days in office, calling him, "the type of leader the world needs when it needs him most.
When Hitler invaded the Soviet Union , Winston Churchill, a vehement anti-communist, famously stated "If Hitler invaded Hell, I would at least make a favourable reference to the Devil in the House of Commons", regarding his policy towards Stalin. The Casablanca Conference , a meeting of Allied powers held in Casablanca , Morocco, on 14 January through 23 January , produced what was to be known as the " Casablanca Declaration ".
In attendance were Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Charles de Gaulle. Joseph Stalin had bowed out, citing the need for his presence in the Soviet Union to attend to the Stalingrad crisis. It was in Casablanca that the Allies made a unified commitment to continue the war through to the "unconditional surrender" of the Axis powers. In private, however, Churchill did not fully subscribe to the doctrine of "unconditional surrender", and was taken by surprise when Franklin Roosevelt announced this to the world as Allied consensus.
The settlement concerning the borders of Poland, that is, the boundary between Poland and the Soviet Union and between Germany and Poland , was viewed as a betrayal in Poland during the post-war years, as it was established against the views of the Polish government in exile. Churchill was convinced that the only way to alleviate tensions between the two populations was the transfer of people , to match the national borders.
As he expounded in the House of Commons on 15 December , "Expulsion is the method which, insofar as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory and lasting. There will be no mixture of populations to cause endless trouble A clean sweep will be made. I am not alarmed by these transferences, which are more possible in modern conditions. During October , he and Eden were in Moscow to meet with the Russian leadership.
At this point, Russian forces were beginning to advance into various eastern European countries. Churchill held the view that until everything was formally and properly worked out at the Yalta conference , there had to be a temporary, war-time, working agreement with regard to who would run what. During the meeting, Poland and the Balkan problems were discussed. Let us settle about our affairs in the Balkans.
Your armies are in Rumania and Bulgaria. We have interests, missions, and agents there. Don't let us get at cross-purposes in small ways. So far as Britain and Russia are concerned, how would it do for you to have ninety per cent predominance in Rumania, for us to have ninety per cent of the say in Greece, and go fifty—fifty about Yugoslavia?
Stalin agreed to this Percentages agreement , ticking a piece of paper as he heard the translation. In , five years after the account of this meeting was published in The Second World War , authorities of the Soviet Union denied that Stalin accepted the "imperialist proposal". One of the conclusions of the Yalta Conference was that the Allies would return all Soviet citizens that found themselves in the Allied zone to the Soviet Union. This immediately affected the Soviet prisoners of war liberated by the Allies, but was also extended to all Eastern European refugees.
There has been debate over Churchill's culpability in the deaths of millions of Indians during the Bengal famine of Some commentators point to the disruption of the traditional marketing system and maladministration at the provincial level as a cause, with Churchill saying that the famine was the Indians' own fault for "breeding like rabbits".
Arthur Herman , author of Churchill and Gandhi , contends, 'The real cause was the fall of Burma to the Japanese, which cut off India's main supply of rice imports when domestic sources fell short In response to an urgent request by the Secretary of State for India Leo Amery and the Viceroy of India Wavell , to release food stocks for India, Churchill responded with a telegram to Wavell asking, if food was so scarce, "why Gandhi hadn't died yet".
Between 13—15 February , British and US bombers attacked the German city of Dresden , which was crowded with German wounded and refugees. Because of the cultural importance of the city, and of the number of civilian casualties close to the end of the war, this remains one of the most controversial Western Allied actions of the war. Following the bombing Churchill stated in a secret telegram:. It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed I feel the need for more precise concentration upon military objectives such as oil and communications behind the immediate battle-zone, rather than on mere acts of terror and wanton destruction, however impressive.
It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of the so called 'area-bombing' of German cities should be reviewed from the point of view of our own interests.
If we come into control of an entirely ruined land, there will be a great shortage of accommodation for ourselves and our allies We must see to it that our attacks do no more harm to ourselves in the long run than they do to the enemy's war effort. Ultimately, responsibility for the British part of the attack lay with Churchill, which is why he has been criticised for allowing the bombings to occur. Grayling questioned the whole strategic bombing campaign by the RAF, presenting the argument that although it was not a war crime it was a moral crime that undermines the Allies' contention that they fought a just war.
On the other hand, it has been asserted that Churchill's involvement in the bombing of Dresden was based on strategic and tactical aspects of winning the war. The destruction of Dresden, while immense, was designed to expedite the defeat of Germany.
As historian and journalist Max Hastings wrote in an article subtitled "the Allied Bombing of Dresden": Bombing represented a sincere, albeit mistaken, attempt to bring about Germany's military defeat.
British historian Frederick Taylor points out that "All sides bombed each other's cities during the war. Half a million Soviet citizens, for example, died from German bombing during the invasion and occupation of Russia. That's roughly equivalent to the number of German citizens who died from Allied raids. In June , the Allied Forces invaded Normandy and pushed the Nazi forces back into Germany on a broad front over the coming year.
After being attacked on three fronts by the Allies, and in spite of Allied failures, such as Operation Market Garden , and German counter-attacks, including the Battle of the Bulge , Germany was eventually defeated. Afterward, Churchill told a huge crowd in Whitehall: In the evening he made another broadcast to the nation asserting the defeat of Japan in the coming months.
As Europe celebrated peace at the end of six years of war, Churchill was concerned with the possibility that the celebrations would soon be brutally interrupted. The plan was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible. Soon after VE day there came a dispute with Britain over French mandates Syria and Lebanon , known as the Levant , which quickly developed into a major diplomatic incident.
The invasion went ahead, and the British swiftly moved in cutting the French General Fernand Oliva-Roget's telephone line with his base at Beirut.
Eventually, heavily outnumbered, Oliva-Roget ordered his men back to their bases near the coast, and they were escorted by the British. A furious row then broke out between Britain and France. Churchill's relationship with de Gaulle was at this time rock bottom in spite of his efforts to preserve French interests at Yalta and a visit to Paris the previous year.
In January he told a colleague that he believed that de Gaulle was "a great danger to peace and for Great Britain. After five years of experience, I am convinced that he is the worst enemy of France in her troubles I am sure that in the long run no understanding will be reached with General de Gaulle". With a general election looming there had been none for almost a decade , and with the Labour Ministers refusing to continue the wartime coalition, Churchill resigned as Prime Minister on 23 May Later that day, he accepted the King's invitation to form a new government, known officially as the National Government , like the Conservative-dominated coalition of the s, but in practice known as the Churchill caretaker ministry.
Although Churchill continued to carry out the functions of Prime Minister, including exchanging messages with the US administration about the upcoming Potsdam Conference , he was not formally reappointed until 28 May.
Although polling day was 5 July, the results of the election did not become known until 26 July, owing to the need to collect the votes of those serving overseas.
Clementine, who together with his daughter Mary had been at the count at Churchill's constituency in Essex although unopposed by the major parties, Churchill had been returned with a much-reduced majority against an independent candidate , returned to meet her husband for lunch. To her suggestion that election defeat might be "a blessing in disguise" he retorted that "at the moment it seems very effectively disguised". That afternoon Churchill's doctor Lord Moran so he later recorded in his book The Struggle for Survival commiserated with him on the "ingratitude" of the British public, to which Churchill replied "I wouldn't call it that.
They have had a very hard time. On the morning of 27 July, Churchill held a farewell Cabinet. On the way out of the Cabinet Room he told Eden "Thirty years of my life have been passed in this room. I shall never sit in it again. You will, but I shall not. It would be another decade before Churchill finally did hand over the reins.
For six years Churchill was to serve as the Leader of the Opposition. During these years he continued to influence world affairs.
During his trip  to the United States, Churchill famously lost a lot of money in a poker game with Harry Truman and his advisors. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere. Churchill's doctor Lord Moran later in his book The Struggle for Survival recalled Churchill suggesting in —the year before he put the idea unsuccessfully in a memo to President Truman—that the United States make a pre-emptive atomic bomb attack on Moscow while the Soviet Union did not yet possess nuclear weapons.
In parliament on 5 June , three days before the London Victory Parade , Churchill said he 'deeply' regretted that:.
The fate of Poland seems to be unending tragedy and we who went to war all ill-prepared on her behalf watch with sorrow the strange outcome of our endeavours. Churchill told the Irish Ambassador to London in , "I said a few words in parliament the other day about your country because I still hope for a united Ireland. You must get those fellows in the north in, though; you can't do it by force. There is not, and never was, any bitterness in my heart towards your country.
I don't want to go there at all, I would much rather go to southern Ireland. Maybe I'll buy another horse with an entry in the Irish Derby. He continued to lead his party after losing the general election. In the summer of , inspired by the ideas being floated by Aristide Briand and by his recent tour of the US in the autumn of , Churchill wrote an article lamenting the instability which had been caused by the independence of Poland and the disintegration of Austria-Hungary into petty states, and called for a " United States of Europe ", although he wrote that Britain was "with Europe but not of it".
Ideas about closer European union continued to circulate, driven by Paul-Henri Spaak , from onwards. Harry Hopkins passed on President Roosevelt's concerns, warning Eden that it would "give free ammunition to US isolationists" who might propose an American "regional council".
Now out of office, Churchill gave a speech at Zurich on 19 September in which he called for "a kind of United States of Europe" centred around a Franco-German partnership, with Britain and the Commonwealth, and perhaps the US, as "friends and sponsors of the new Europe".
The Times wrote of him "startling the world" with "outrageous propositions" and warned that there was as yet little appetite for such unity, and that he appeared to be assuming a permanent division between Eastern and Western Europe, and urged "more humdrum" economic agreements.
Churchill's speech was praised by Leo Amery and by Count Coudenhove-Kalergi who wrote that it would galvanise governments into action. Churchill expressed similar sentiments at a meeting of the Primrose League at the Albert Hall on 18 May He declared "let Europe arise" but was "absolutely clear" that "we shall allow no wedge to be driven between Britain and the United States".
Churchill's speeches helped to encourage the foundation of the Council of Europe. He declared that les absents ont toujours tort "the absent are always wrong" and called it "a squalid attitude" which "derange d the balance of Europe" and risked Germany dominating the new grouping.
He called for world unity through the UN against the backdrop of the communist invasion of South Korea , while stressing that Britain was uniquely placed to exert leadership through her links to the Commonwealth, the US and Europe. He listed British Foreign Policy priorities as Commonwealth unity and consolidation, "fraternal association" of the English-speaking world i.
In July , Field-Marshal Montgomery told the press that the aged Churchill, whom he had just visited in hospital where he was being treated for a broken hip, was opposed to Macmillan 's negotiations for Britain to enter the EEC which would, in the event, be vetoed by the French President, General de Gaulle , the following January.
Churchill told his granddaughter, Edwina, that Montgomery's behaviour in leaking a private conversation was "monstrous". After the general election of October , Churchill again became prime minister, and his second government lasted until his resignation in April He also held the office of Minister of Defence from October until 1 March , when he handed the portfolio to Field Marshal Alexander.
In domestic affairs, various reforms were introduced such as the Mines and Quarries Act and the Housing Repairs and Rents Act The former measure consolidated legislation dealing with the employment of young persons and women in mines and quarries, together with safety, health, and welfare.
The latter measure extended previous housing Acts, and set out details in defining housing units as "unfit for human habitation. Housing was an issue the Conservatives were widely recognised to have made their own, after the Churchill government of the early s, with Harold Macmillan as Minister for Housing, giving housing construction far higher political priority than it had received under the Attlee administration where housing had been attached to the portfolio of Health Minister Aneurin Bevan , whose attention was concentrated on his responsibilities for the National Health Service.
Macmillan had accepted Churchill's challenge to meet the latter's ambitious public commitment to build , new homes a year, and achieved the target a year ahead of schedule. Churchill's domestic priorities in his last government were overshadowed by a series of foreign policy crises, which were partly the result of the continued decline of British military and imperial prestige and power.
Being a strong proponent of Britain as an international power , Churchill would often meet such moments with direct action. One example was his dispatch of British troops to Kenya to deal with the Mau Mau rebellion. This was followed by events which became known as the Malayan Emergency which had been in progress since Once again, Churchill's government inherited a crisis, and Churchill chose to use direct military action against those in rebellion while attempting to build an alliance with those who were not.
In the early s, Britain was still attempting to remain a third major power on the world stage. This was "the time when Britain stood up to the United States as strongly as she was ever to do in the postwar world". He made four official transatlantic visits to America during his second term as prime minister. Churchill and Eden visited Washington in January Churchill affected to believe that the proposed EDC would not work, scoffing at the supposed difficulties of language.
Churchill asked in vain for a US military commitment to support Britain's position in Egypt and Middle East where the Truman Administration had recently pressured Attlee not to intervene against Mossadeq in Iran ; this did not meet with American approval—the US expected British support to fight communism in Korea , but saw any US commitment to the Middle East as supporting British imperialism, and were unpersuaded that this would help prevent pro-Soviet regimes from coming to power.
Eisenhower , who had just assumed office as US President, on 11 March proposing a summit meeting with the Soviets; Eisenhower wrote back pouring cold water on the suggestions as the Soviets might use it for propaganda. Some of Churchill's colleagues hoped that he might retire after the Queen's Coronation in May Please make me retire before I am 80!
Ministers like Lord Salisbury acting Foreign Secretary and Nutting were concerned at the irritation caused to the Americans and the French, although Selwyn Lloyd supported Churchill's initiative, as did most Conservatives. In his diary a year later, Eden wrote of Churchill's actions with fury. Churchill had suffered a mild stroke while on holiday in the south of France in the summer of By the time he formed his next government he was slowing down noticeably enough for George VI, as early as December , to consider inviting Churchill to retire in the following year in favour of Anthony Eden ,  but it is not recorded if the King made that approach before his own death in February The strain of carrying the Premiership and Foreign Office contributed to his second stroke at 10 Downing Street after dinner on the evening of 23 June Despite being partially paralysed down one side, he presided over a Cabinet meeting the next morning without anybody noticing his incapacity.
Thereafter his condition deteriorated, and it was thought that he might not survive the weekend. Had Eden been fit, Churchill's premiership would most likely have been over. News of this was kept from the public and from Parliament, who were told that Churchill was suffering from exhaustion. He went to his country home, Chartwell, to recuperate, and by the end of June he astonished his doctors by being able, dripping with perspiration, to lift himself upright from his chair.
He joked that news of his illness had chased the trial of the serial killer John Christie off the front pages. Churchill was still keen to pursue a meeting with the Soviets and was open to the idea of a reunified Germany. He refused to condemn the Soviet crushing of East Germany, commenting on 10 July that "The Russians were surprisingly patient about the disturbances in East Germany ".
He thought this might have been the reason for the removal of Beria. Churchill was annoyed about friction between Eden and Dulles June On the trip home from another Anglo-American conference, the diplomat Pierson Dixon compared US actions in Guatemala to Soviet policy in Korea and Greece , causing Churchill to retort that Guatemala was a "bloody place" he'd "never heard of". Churchill was still keen for a trip to Moscow, and threatened to resign, provoking a crisis in the Cabinet when Lord Salisbury threatened to resign if Churchill had his way.
In the end the Soviets proposed a five-power conference, which did not meet until after Churchill had retired. By the autumn Churchill was again postponing his resignation. Eden, now partially recovered from his operations, became a major figure on the world stage in , helping to negotiate peace in Indo-China , an agreement with Egypt and to broker an agreement between the countries of Western Europe after the French rejection of the EDC.
At the time of his departure, he was considered to have had the longest ministerial career in modern British politics. Elizabeth II offered to create Churchill Duke of London , but this was declined as a result of the objections of his son Randolph, who would have inherited the title on his father's death.
After leaving the premiership, Churchill spent less time in parliament until he stood down at the general election. Although publicly supportive, Churchill was privately scathing about Eden's Suez Invasion. His wife believed that he had made a number of visits to the US in the following years in an attempt to help repair Anglo-American relations.
By the time of the general election Churchill seldom attended the House of Commons. Despite the Conservative landslide, his own majority fell by more than a thousand.
It is widely believed that as his mental and physical faculties decayed, he began to lose a battle he had supposedly long fought against depression. However, the nature, incidence and severity of Churchill's depression is uncertain. Anthony Montague Browne , Personal Secretary to Churchill during the latter's final ten years of life, wrote that he never heard Churchill refer to depression, and he disputed that the former prime minister suffered from depression.
There was speculation that Churchill may have had Alzheimer's disease in his last years, although others maintain that his reduced mental capacity was simply the cumulative result of the ten strokes and the increasing deafness he suffered from during the period — Kennedy , acting under authorisation granted by an Act of Congress , proclaimed him an Honorary Citizen of the United States ,  but he was unable to attend the White House ceremony. Despite poor health, Churchill still tried to remain active in public life, and on St George's Day , sent a message of congratulations to the surviving veterans of the Zeebrugge Raid who were attending a service of commemoration in Deal, Kent , where two casualties of the raid were buried in the Hamilton Road Cemetery.
On 15 January , Churchill suffered a severe stroke and died at his London home nine days later, aged 90, on the morning of Sunday, 24 January , 70 years to the day after his own father's death.
Churchill's funeral plan had been initiated in , after he suffered a major stroke, under the name Operation Hope Not. The purpose was to commemorate Churchill "on a scale befitting his position in history", as Queen Elizabeth II declared. The funeral was the largest state funeral in world history up to that time, with representatives from nations; only China did not send an emissary.
In Europe, million people, including 25 million in Britain, watched the funeral on television, and only the Republic of Ireland did not broadcast it live. By decree of the Queen, his body lay in state in Westminster Hall for three days and a state funeral service was held at St Paul's Cathedral on 30 January Unusually, the Queen attended the funeral because Churchill was the first commoner since William Gladstone to lie-in-State. The coffin was then taken the short distance to Waterloo station where it was loaded onto a specially prepared and painted carriage as part of the funeral train for its rail journey to Hanborough ,  seven miles northwest of Oxford.
The funeral train of Pullman coaches carrying his family mourners was hauled by Battle of Britain class steam locomotive No. In the fields along the route, and at the stations through which the train passed, thousands stood in silence to pay their last respects.
At Churchill's request, he was buried in the family plot at St Martin's Church, Bladon , near Woodstock, not far from his birthplace at Blenheim Palace. Churchill's funeral van—former Southern Railway van SS—is now part of a preservation project with the Swanage Railway , having been repatriated to the UK in from the US, to where it had been exported in Later in a memorial to Churchill, cut by the engraver Reynolds Stone , was placed in Westminster Abbey.
Churchill was an accomplished amateur artist and took great pleasure in painting, especially after his resignation as First Lord of the Admiralty in William Rees-Mogg wrote "In his own life, he had to suffer the 'black dog' of depression. In his landscapes and still lifes there is no sign of depression. Maze was a great influence on Churchill's painting and became a lifelong painting companion. Churchill's best known paintings are impressionist landscapes, many of which were painted while on holiday in the South of France, Egypt or Morocco.
He completed the painting from the tower of the Villa Taylor in Marrakesh. Emery Reves was Churchill's American publisher, as well as a close friend  and Churchill often visited Emery and his wife Wendy Russell Reves at their villa, La Pausa , in the South of France, which had originally been built in for Coco Chanel by her lover the 2nd Duke of Westminster.
The villa was rebuilt within the museum in with a gallery of Churchill paintings and memorabilia. MPs before received only a nominal salary and in fact did not receive anything at all until the Parliament Act so many had secondary professions from which to earn a living.
Churchill was a prolific writer, often under the pen name "Winston S. Churchill", which he used by agreement [ citation needed ] with the American novelist of the same name to avoid confusion between their works. His output included a novel, two biographies, three volumes of memoirs, and several histories.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values". Churchill was an amateur bricklayer , constructing buildings and garden walls at his country home at Chartwell,  where he also bred butterflies.
Churchill was passionate about science and technology. In the s and s, he wrote popular-science essays on topics such as evolution and fusion power. In an unpublished manuscript, Are We Alone in the Universe? Churchill was a career politician , with biographer Robert Rhodes James describing him as a man "who was to devote himself for his entire adult life to the profession of politics". Gilbert described Churchill as "a radical" who believed that the state was needed to ensure "minimum standards of life, labour and social well-being for all citizens".
Although Churchill had upset both Edward VII and George V in his political career, he always remained a firm monarchist ,  displaying a romanticised view of the British monarchy. Churchill exhibited a romanticised view of the British Empire. James described Churchill as having "no permanent commitment to any" party, and that his "shifts of allegiance were never unconnected with his personal interests". By , he was increasingly dissatisfied with the Conservatives, in part due to their promotion of economic protectionism, but also because he had attracted the animosity of many party members and was likely aware that this might have prevented him gaining a Cabinet position under a Conservative government.
The Liberal Party was then attracting growing support, and so his defection may have also have been influenced by personal ambition. I hate the Tory party, their men, their words and their methods". Throughout his political career, Churchill's relationship with the Conservative Party was stormy. Churchill firmly believed himself to be a man of destiny. Jenkins stated that in his early parliamentary years, Churchill was "often deliberately provocative";  Rhodes James called it "deliberately aggressive".
From childhood, Churchill had been unable to pronounce the letter s , verbalising it with a slur. Authors writing in the s and s, before sound recording became common, also mentioned Churchill having a stutter, describing it in terms such as "severe" or "agonising". He thought rhetorically, and was constantly in danger of his policy being made by his phrases rather than vice versa. For Jenkins, Churchill was "singularly lacking in inhibition or concealment",  and for Rhodes James he "lacked any capacity for intrigue and was refreshingly innocent and straightforward".
Churchill displayed particular loyalty to his family and close friends. In , he retired from the regular army, and in joined the Imperial Yeomanry , where he was commissioned as a Captain in the Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars on 4 January Churchill found himself seated beside Clementine, and they soon began a lifelong romance. On 12 September , he and Clementine were married in St. Edwards , the Bishop of St Asaph, conducted the service.
After the pregnancy, Clementine moved to Sussex to recover, while Diana stayed in London with her nanny. The birth was marked with anxiety for Clementine, as Churchill had been sent to Antwerp by the Cabinet to "stiffen the resistance of the beleaguered city" after news that the Belgians intended to surrender the town.
In the early days of August , the Churchills' children were entrusted to a French nursery governess in Kent, Mlle Rose. While still under the care of Mlle Rose, Marigold had a cold but was reported to have recovered from the illness.
As the illness progressed with hardly any notice, it turned into septicaemia. Rose sent for Clementine, but the illness proved fatal on 23 August , and Marigold was buried in the Kensal Green Cemetery three days later.
Later that month, the Churchills bought Chartwell , which would be their home until Winston's death in The Churchills were married for 57 years. In autumn , Churchill's former private secretary, Sir John Colville , was interviewed by archivists at Churchill College, Cambridge.
During the interview Colville reported that Churchill had had a 'brief affair' with Doris, Viscountess Castlerosse , a glamorous aristocrat.
During the s, while he was out of political office, Churchill spent four holidays with Castlerosse, in the south of France. Churchill painted at least two portraits of Castlerosse. Following the revival of his political career, in the late s, Churchill ended the relationship. In the late s, Castlerosse's love letters to Churchill were revealed to Clementine. Churchill's relationship with Castlerosse was the subject of a documentary shown on Channel 4 , on 4 March Churchill was christened on December 27, , in the chapel of Blenheim Palace, and was raised in the Church of England ;  however, his religious beliefs as an adult have been described as agnostic.
He did not attend worship services regularly, choosing rather to grace the cathedrals only for state occasions and rites of passage. The Bible he read merely "out of curiosity" and discussions of Church dogma were, safe to say, near the bottom of his to-do list.
Furthermore, Churchill entered into a period of anti-religious fervor during his early twenties. His attitude mellowed as he aged, but the skepticism he adopted then never fully dissipated. It would appear fair to say that, on a strictly intellectual level, Churchill was an agnostic. On the other hand, he remained sympathetic to religious belief and, in particular, to the Christian faith, and tended sincerely to draw on its resources as needed, irrespective of any logical contradiction with his formal doubts.
The hymns and worship that Churchill imbibed in his youth embedded in him an emotional and spiritual connection with the Church of England—albeit one that stood at arms' length to its teachings. He once described his relationship with the Church as a buttress: He was an adamant defender of Christian civilization and earnestly advocated the need for Christian ethics in a democratic society.
In , in a letter calmly written while facing the prospect of death in battle, he wrote to his mother, "I do not accept the Christian or any other form of religious belief". During the Boer War, Churchill often prayed during the heat of battle, but he admitted that he thought it was an unreasonable thing to do. I therefore acted in accordance with my feelings without troubling to square such conduct with the conclusions of thought".
In , Churchill received a letter from his future sister-in-law, Lady Gwendoline Bertie, in which she pleaded: In The River War , his account of the conflict, he had written at age No stronger retrograde force exists in the world". Churchill was an animal lover and owned a wide range of animals, including dogs , cats , horses , pigs , fish , and black swans , many of which were kept at Chartwell.
Colville presented Churchill with his last cat, called Jock, on his 88th birthday and Churchill made provision in the Chartwell National Trust that it would always house a cat called Jock. In addition to the honour of a state funeral , Churchill received a wide range of awards and other honours, including the following, chronologically:.
Churchill held substantive ranks in the British Army and in the Territorial Army since he was commissioned as a Cornet in the 4th Queen's Own Hussars until his retirement from the Territorial Army in with the rank of Major, having held the temporary rank of Lieutenant-Colonel during the Great War.
In addition he held many honorary military appointments. In , he was appointed as an Honorary Air Commodore in the Auxiliary Air Force and was awarded honorary wings in Resuming, Churchill held the following military ranks and appointments: The historian Robert Rhodes James stated that Churchill had lived an "exceptionally long, complex, and controversial life", one which—in the realm of British parliamentary politics—was comparable only to Gladstone's in its "length, drama and incident".
Haffner believed that Churchill had an "affinity with war", exhibiting "a profound and innate understanding of it. He worked hard; he put his proposals efficiently through the Cabinet and Parliament; he carried his Department with him. These ministerial merits are not as common as might be thought.
Between and , an eight-volume biography of Churchill was published, started by Randolph Churchill but completed largely by Martin Gilbert after the former's death in Notably, Churchill's strongly held and outspoken racial views have frequently been highlighted, quoted and strongly criticised. From early on, his reputation as an unbending imperialist was well established.
At the November cabinet meeting where a final decision on a proposal to retrocede Weihaiwei to China was to be made, he, alone with George Curzon , another uncompromising imperialist, adamantly opposed the proposal, no matter how worthless the territory was known to be.
He lamented Britain's historic readiness to barter away places such as Java and Corfu, asking "Why melt down the capital collected by our forebears to please a lot of pacifists? Churchill's attitudes towards and policies regarding Indians and Britain's rule of the subcontinent are frequently criticised, and have left a lasting and highly contentious mark on his legacy.
Historian Walter Reid, who has written admiringly about Churchill's premiership and "absolutely crucial role during the Second World War," has however acknowledged that Churchill "was very wrong in relation to India, where his conduct fell far below his usual level.
Winston Churchill has been regularly portrayed in film, television, radio and other media. The depictions range from minor character to the biographical centerpiece, exceeding 30 films, more than two dozen television shows, several stage productions, and countless books.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Churchill disambiguation and Winston Churchill disambiguation. Diana Randolph Sarah Marigold Mary. Lord Randolph Churchill Jennie Jerome. British Army Territorial Army. Winston Churchill in politics: I wanted to draw the attention of the country, by means of cases perfectly legitimate in themselves, to the evil by which 7, lads of the poorer classes are sent to gaol every year for offences for which, if the noble Lord had committed them at College, he would not have been subjected to the slightest degree of inconvenience.
I admit that the perfectly genuine apprehensions of the majority of the people of North-East Ulster constitute the most serious obstacle to a thoroughly satisfactory settlement But whatever Ulster's rights may be, she cannot stand in the way of the whole of the rest of Ireland.
I cannot feel that we in this island [i. Britain] are in any serious degree responsible for the wave of madness which has swept the mind of Christendom.
No one can measure the consequences. I wondered whether those stupid Kings and Emperors could not assemble together and revivify kingship by saving the nations from hell but we all drift on in a kind of dull cataleptic trance. As if it was somebody else's operations. Chancellorship of Winston Churchill.
Simon Commission and Government of India Act Edward VIII abdication crisis. For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the first premiership of Winston Churchill. Later life of Winston Churchill. Ideas of European unity before Second premiership of Winston Churchill. Mau Mau Uprising and Malayan Emergency. Winston Churchill as historian and Winston Churchill as writer. Liberalism is not Socialism, and never will be. There is a great gulf fixed. It is not a gulf of method, it is a gulf of principle Socialism seeks to pull down wealth; Liberalism seeks to raise up poverty.
Socialism would destroy private interests; Liberalism would preserve private interests in the only way in which they can be safely and justly preserved, namely by reconciling them with public right. Socialism would kill enterprise; Liberalism would rescue enterprise from the trammels of privilege and preference Socialism exalts the rule; Liberalism exalts the man. Socialism attacks capital; Liberalism attacks monopoly.