Historia precolombina de Chile

Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18, years ago. The largest airport in Chile, it is ranked sixth in passenger traffic among Latin American airports, with 14,, passengers served in —a This figure reflects broad growth in the population of the city during the 20th century: Santiago's location within a watershed is one of the most important factors determining the climate of the city. Conquest took place gradually, and the Europeans suffered repeated setbacks.

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In the congressional elections, the conservative Independent Democratic Union UDI surpassed the Christian Democrats for the first time to become the largest party in the lower house.

In the legislative elections in Chile, the Communist Party won 3 out of seats in the Chamber of Deputies for the first time in 30 years the Communist Party was not allowed to exist as such during the dictatorship. Chileans voted in the first round of presidential elections on 17 November None of the nine presidential candidates got more than 50 percent of the vote. This was Chile's sixth presidential election since the end of the Pinochet era.

All six have been judged free and fair. The president is constitutionally barred from serving consecutive terms. Since the early decades after independence, Chile has always had an active involvement in foreign affairs. In the country aggressively challenged the dominance of Peru's port of Callao for preeminence in the Pacific trade routes, defeating the short-lived alliance between Peru and Bolivia, the Peru-Bolivian Confederation —39 in the War of the Confederation.

The war dissolved the confederation while distributing power in the Pacific. A second international war, the War of the Pacific —83 , further increased Chile's regional role, while adding considerably to its territory.

During the 19th century, Chile's commercial ties were primarily with Britain, a nation that had a major influence on the formation of the Chilean navy. The French influenced Chile's legal and educational systems and had a decisive impact on Chile, through the architecture of the capital in the boom years at the turn of the 20th century. German influence came from the organization and training of the army by Prussians. Since its return to democracy in , Chile has been an active participant in the international political arena.

Jose Miguel Insulza, a Chilean national, was elected Secretary General of the Organization of American States in May and confirmed in his position, being re-elected in The country is an active member of the UN family of agencies and participates in UN peacekeeping activities. An associate member of Mercosur and a full member of APEC, Chile has been a major player in international economic issues and hemispheric free trade.

The Chilean Government has diplomatic relations with most countries. It settled all its territorial disputes with Argentina during the s except for part of the border at Southern Patagonian Ice Field. Chile and Bolivia severed diplomatic ties in over Bolivia's desire to regain sovereign access to the Pacific Ocean it lost to Chile in —83 War of the Pacific.

The two countries maintain consular relations and are represented at the Consul General level. In Chile was administratively divided into regions , [72] and in subdivided into provinces and these into communes. Each region is designated by a name and a Roman numeral assigned from north to south, except for the Santiago Metropolitan Region , which does not have a number. The national flower is the copihue Lapageria rosea , Chilean bellflower , which grows in the woods of southern Chile.

The coat of arms depicts the two national animals: The flag of Chile consists of two equal horizontal bands of white top and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the blood spilled to achieve independence.

The flag of Chile is similar to the Flag of Texas , although the Chilean flag is 21 years older. The Armed Forces of Chile are subject to civilian control exercised by the president through the Minister of Defense. The president has the authority to remove the commanders-in-chief of the armed forces.

The Chilean Army is one of the most professional and technologically advanced armies in Latin America. Of the fleet of 29 surface vessels, only eight are operational major combatants frigates.

The Navy also operates four submarines based in Talcahuano. The Air Force took delivery of the final two of ten Fs, all purchased from the U.

Chile also took delivery in of a number of reconditioned Block 15 Fs from the Netherlands, bringing to 18 the total of Fs purchased from the Dutch. After the military coup in September the Chilean national police Carabineros were incorporated into the Defense Ministry.

With the return of democratic government, the police were placed under the operational control of the Interior Ministry but remained under the nominal control of the Defense Ministry. It is situated within the Pacific Ring of Fire. Chile is among the longest north-south countries in the world. If one considers only mainland territory, Chile is unique within this group in its narrowness from east to west, with the other long north-south countries including Brazil , Russia , Canada , and the United States, among others all being wider from east to west by a factor of more than However, this latter claim is suspended under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty , of which Chile is a signatory.

Also controlled but only temporarily inhabited by some local fishermen are the small islands of San Ambrosio and San Felix. These islands are notable because they extend Chile's claim to territorial waters out from its coast into the Pacific Ocean. The northern Atacama Desert contains great mineral wealth, primarily copper and nitrates. The relatively small Central Valley, which includes Santiago, dominates the country in terms of population and agricultural resources.

This area is also the historical center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century, when it integrated the northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests, grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands.

The Andes Mountains are located on the eastern border. The diverse climate of Chile ranges from the world's driest desert in the north—the Atacama Desert —through a Mediterranean climate in the center, humid subtropical in Easter Island, to an oceanic climate , including alpine tundra and glaciers in the east and south. There are four seasons in most of the country: The flora and fauna of Chile are characterized by a high degree of endemism, due to its particular geography.

In continental Chile, the Atacama Desert in the north and the Andes mountains to the east are barriers that have led to the isolation of flora and fauna. The native flora of Chile consists of relatively fewer species compared to the flora of other South American countries. The northernmost coastal and central region is largely barren of vegetation, approaching the most absolute desert in the world.

The central valley is characterized by several species of cacti, the hardy espinos , the Chilean pine , the southern beeches and the copihue , a red bell-shaped flower that is Chile's national flower. Grassland is found in Atlantic Chile in Patagonia. Much of the Chilean flora is distinct from that of neighboring Argentina, indicating that the Andean barrier existed during its formation.

Some of Chile's flora has an Antarctic origin due to land bridges which formed during the Cretaceous ice ages, allowing plants to migrate from Antarctica to South America. Just over 3, species of fungi are recorded in Chile, [93] [94] but this number is far from complete. The true total number of fungal species occurring in Chile is likely to be far higher, given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7 percent of all fungi worldwide have so far been discovered. Chile's geographical isolation has restricted the immigration of faunal life, so that only a few of the many distinctive South American animals are found.

Among the larger mammals are the puma or cougar, the llama-like guanaco and the fox-like chilla. In the forest region, several types of marsupials and a small deer known as the pudu are found. There are many species of small birds, but most of the larger common Latin American types are absent.

Few freshwater fish are native, but North American trout have been successfully introduced into the Andean lakes. Whales are abundant, and some six species of seals are found in the area. Chile is located along a highly seismic and volcanic zone, part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, due to the subduction of the Nazca and Antarctic plates in the South American plate. Late Paleozoic , million years ago, Chile belonged to the continental block called Gondwana.

It was just a depression accumulated marine sediments began to rise at the end of the Mesozoic, 66 million years ago, due to the collision between the Nazca and South American plates, resulting in the Andes. The territory would be shaped by millions of years due to the folding of the rocks, forming the current relief.

Chile's highest peak is the Nevado Ojos del Salado , at Among the coastal mountains and the Pacific is a series of coastal plains, of variable length, which allow the settlement of coastal towns and big ports. Some areas of the plains territories encompass territory east of the Andes, and the Patagonian steppes and Magellan, or are high plateaus surrounded by high mountain ranges, such as the Altiplano or Puna de Atacama.

It is characterized by the presence of the Atacama desert , the most arid in the world. The desert is fragmented by streams that originate in the area known as the pampas Tamarugal. The Andes, split in two and whose eastern arm runs Bolivia , has a high altitude and volcanic activity, which has allowed the formation of the Andean altiplano and salt structures as the Salar de Atacama , due to the gradual accumulation of sediments over time.

To the south is the Norte Chico , extending to the Aconcagua river. The two mountain ranges intersect, virtually eliminating the intermediate depression. The existence of rivers flowing through the territory allows the formation of transverse valleys , where agriculture has developed strongly in recent times, while the coastal plains begin to expand.

The Central area is the most populated region of the country. The coastal plains are wide and allow the establishment of cities and ports along the Pacific. The Andes maintains altitudes above m but descend slowly starts approaching the meters on average.

The intermediate depression reappears becoming a fertile valley that allows agricultural development and human settlement, due to sediment accumulation. To the south, the Cordillera de la Costa reappears in the range of Nahuelbuta while glacial sediments originate a series of lakes in the area of La Frontera.

During the last glaciation , this area was covered by ice that strongly eroded Chilean relief structures. The Andes mountain range loses height and erosion caused by the action of glaciers has caused fjords.

East of the Andes, on the continent, or north of it, on the island of Tierra del Fuego are located relatively flat plains, which in the Strait of Magellan cover large areas.

In the middle of the Pacific, the country has sovereignty over several islands of volcanic origin, collectively known as Insular Chile. Of these, we highlight the archipelago of Juan Fernandez and Easter Island, which is located in the fracture zone between the Nazca plate and the Pacific plate known as East Pacific Rise. Due to the characteristics of the territory, Chile is crossed by numerous rivers generally short in length and with low torrential flow.

In the center-north of the country, the number of rivers that form valleys of agricultural importance increases. Their waters mainly flow from Andean snowmelt in the summer and winter rains. The major lakes in this area are the artificial lake Rapel, the Colbun Maule lagoon and the lagoon of La Laja.

Chile's census reported a population of 17,, Its rate of population growth has been decreasing since , due to a declining birth rate. The largest agglomerations according to the census are Greater Santiago with 5. A national poll revealed that a majority of Chileans believed they possessed some The census reported , Indians, or 3. Only those that practiced their native culture or spoke their native language were considered to be Indians, irrespective of their "racial purity".

In a census took place, directly asking the public whether they considered themselves as part of any of the eight Chilean ethnic groups, regardless of whether or not they maintained their culture, traditions and language, and 4.

Of that number, Chile is one of 22 countries to have signed and ratified the only binding international law concerning indigenous peoples, the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, Chile ratified it in A Chilean court decision in November considered to be a landmark ruling on indigenous rights and made use of the convention.

Chile was never a particularly attractive destination for migrants, owing to its remoteness and distance from Europe. Other groups of Europeans have followed but are found in smaller numbers, like the descendants of Austrians [] and Dutch people. Currently, these are estimated at about 50, people. Sponsored by the Chilean government to "unbarbarize" and colonize the southern region, [] these Germans notably the Swiss, Silesians, Alsatians and Austrians settled mainly in Valdivia, Osorno and Llanquihue.

Descendants of different European ethnic groups often intermarried in Chile. This intermarriage and mixture of cultures and races have helped to shape the present society and culture of the Chilean middle and upper classes.

Due in part to its economic fortunes, Chile has recently become a new magnet for immigrants, mostly from neighboring Argentina , Bolivia and mainly Peru. As of [update] , The Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of religion , and other laws and policies contribute to generally free religious practice. The law at all levels fully protects this right against abuse by either governmental or private actors.

Church and state are officially separate in Chile. A law on religion prohibits religious discrimination. However, the Roman Catholic church for mostly historical and social reasons enjoys a privileged status and occasionally receives preferential treatment. The Spanish spoken in Chile is distinctively accented and quite unlike that of neighboring South American countries because final syllables are often dropped, and some consonants have a soft pronunciation.

That the Chilean population was largely formed in a small section at the center of the country and then migrated in modest numbers to the north and south helps explain this relative lack of differentiation, which was maintained by the national reach of radio, and now television, which also helps to diffuse and homogenize colloquial expressions. There are several indigenous languages spoken in Chile: Mapudungun , Quechua , Aymara and Rapa Nui. After the Spanish invasion, Spanish took over as the lingua franca and the indigenous languages have become minority languages, with some now extinct or close to extinction.

German is still spoken to some extent in southern Chile, [] either in small country side pockets or as a second language among the communities of larger cities. Through initiatives such as the English Opens Doors Program , the government made English mandatory for students in fifth-grade and above in public schools.

Most private schools in Chile start teaching English from kindergarten. In Chile, education begins with preschool until the age of 5. Primary school is provided for children between ages 6 and Students then attend secondary school until graduation at age Secondary education is divided into two parts: During the first two years, students receive a general education.

Then, they choose a branch: Chilean education is segregated by wealth in a three-tiered system — the quality of the schools reflect socioeconomic backgrounds:. Upon successful graduation of secondary school, students may continue into higher education.

The higher education schools in Chile consist of Chilean Traditional Universities and are divided into public universities or private universities. There are medical schools and both the Universidad de Chile and Universidad Diego Portales offer law schools in a partnership with Yale University.

The Ministry of Health Minsal is the cabinet-level administrative office in charge of planning, directing, coordinating, executing, controlling and informing the public health policies formulated by the President of Chile. The National Health Fund Fonasa , created in , is the financial entity entrusted to collect, manage and distribute state funds for health in Chile.

It is funded by the public. All employees pay 7 percent of their monthly income to the fund. Its headquarters are in Santiago and decentralized public service is conducted by various Regional Offices. More than 12 million beneficiaries benefit from Fonasa. Beneficiaries can also opt for more costly private insurance through Isapre. Hospitals in Chile are mainly located in the Santiago Metropolitan Region. The Central Bank of Chile in Santiago serves as the central bank for the country.

Chile is one of South America's most stable and prosperous nations, [11] leading Latin American nations in human development , competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption. Chile has the highest degree of economic freedom in South America ranking 7th worldwide , owing to its independent and efficient judicial system and prudent public finance management. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the s, have contributed to steady economic growth in Chile and have more than halved poverty rates.

The economy remained sluggish until , when it began to show clear signs of recovery, achieving 4. Real GDP growth reached 5. GDP expanded by 5 percent in Nonetheless, economic analysts disagreed with government estimates and predicted economic growth at a median of 1.

Growth slowed to 4. The unemployment rate was 6. As of November , about The privatized national pension system AFP has encouraged domestic investment and contributed to an estimated total domestic savings rate of approximately 21 percent of GDP. Chile has signed free trade agreements FTAs with a whole network of countries, including an FTA with the United States that was signed in and implemented in January Chile's approach to foreign direct investment is codified in the country's Foreign Investment Law.

Registration is reported to be simple and transparent, and foreign investors are guaranteed access to the official foreign exchange market to repatriate their profits and capital.

Agriculture in Chile encompasses a wide range of different activities due to its particular geography , climate and geology and human factors. Historically agriculture is one of the bases of Chile's economy. Now agriculture and allied sectors like forestry , logging and fishing account for only 4. Some major agriculture products of Chile include grapes , apples , pears , onions , wheat , corn , oats , peaches , garlic , asparagus , beans , beef , poultry , wool , fish , timber and hemp.

This, its location in the Southern Hemisphere , which has quite different harvesting times from the Northern Hemisphere , and its wide range of agriculture conditions are considered Chile's main comparative advantages.

However, Chile's mountainous landscape limits the extent and intensity of agriculture so that arable land corresponds only to 2. Tourism in Chile has experienced sustained growth over the last few decades. In , tourism grew by According to the National Service of Tourism Sernatur , 2 million people a year visit the country.

Most of these visitors come from other countries in the American continent, mainly Argentina ; followed by a growing number from the United States, Europe, and Brazil with a growing number of Asians from South Korea and PR China. The royal government lasted until , when the Army of the Andes secured victory in battle of Chacabuco , reinstating the patriot government in Santiago.

Independence, however, was not assured. With the end of the war, Bernardo O'Higgins was accepted as Supreme Director and, like his father, began a number of important works for the city. During the call Patria Nueva , closed institutions reopened. Two new earthquakes hit the city, one on 19 November , and another on 20 February These two events, however, did not prevent the city's rapid, continued growth.

In , the city reported 46, inhabitants, while in , the population reached 69, In , the census reported , inhabitants. This significant increase was the result of suburban growth to the south and west of the capital, and in part to La Chimba, a vibrant district growing from the division of old properties that existed in the area.

This new peripheral development led to the end of the traditional checkerboard structure that previously governed the city center. Created primarily for educational use, they also became examples of public planning during that period.

A new redevelopment of the Alameda Avenue turned it into the main road of the city. Also during this time and with the work of European landscapers in , O'Higgins Park came into existence. The park, open to the public, became a landmark in Santiago due to its large gardens, lakes, and carriage trails. At the same time, the International Exposition was held in the grounds of the Quinta Normal. The city became the main hub of the national railway system. Under construction at the time, the station would be opened permanently in The streets of Santiago were paved and by there were 1, railway cars in the city, while 45, people used tram services on a daily basis.

With the arrival of the new century, the city began to experience various changes related to the strong development of industry. The enactment of the Autonomous Municipalities' act allowed municipalities to create various administrative divisions around the then Santiago departamento, with the aim of improving local ruling. The San Cristobal Hill in this period began a long process of development. In an astronomical observatory was installed and the following year the first stone was placed for its meter Virgin Mary statue, nowadays visible from various points of city.

However, the shrine would not be completed until some decades later. With the Chile Centennial celebrations, many urban projects were undertaken. At the Mapocho river's southern side, the Parque Forestal was created and new buildings such as the Museum of Fine Arts , the Barros Arana public boarding school and the National Library were opened.

The census estimated the population of Santiago to be , inhabitants, equivalent to This represented an increase of This growth was mainly due to the arrival of farmers from the south who came to work in factories and railroads which were under construction. However, this growth was experienced on the outskirts and not in the town itself.

During this time, the downtown district was consolidated into a commercial, financial and administrative center, with the establishment of various portals and locales around Ahumada Street and a Civic District in the immediate surroundings of the Palace of La Moneda.

The latter project involved the construction of various modernist buildings for the establishment of the offices of ministries and other public services, as well as commencing the construction of medium-rise buildings. Furthermore, in the periphery villas were built various partners from various organizations of the time. Modernity expanded in the city, with the appearance of the first theaters, the extension of the telephone network and the opening of the Airport Los Cerrillos in , among other advances.

The feeling that the early 20th century was an era of economic growth due to technological advances contrasted dramatically with the standard of living of lower social classes. The growth of the previous decades led to an unprecedented population explosion starting in The Great Depression caused the collapse of the nitrate industry in the north, leaving 60, unemployed, which added to the decline in agricultural exports, resulting in a total number for the unemployed to be about , nationwide.

These unemployed workers saw Santiago and its booming industry as the only chance to survive. Many migrants arrived in Santiago with nothing and thousands had to survive on the streets due to the great difficulty in finding a place they could rent. Widespread disease, including tuberculosis, claimed the lives of hundreds of the homeless.

Unemployment and living costs increased dramatically whilst the salaries of the population of Santiago fell. The situation would change only several years later with a new industrial boom fostered by CORFO and the expansion of the state apparatus from the late s. At this time, the aristocracy lost much of its power and the middle class, composed of merchants, bureaucrats and professionals, acquired the role of setting national policy.

In this context, Santiago began to develop a substantial middle- and lower-class population, while the upper classes sought refuge in the districts of the capital. Thus, the old moneyed class trips to Cousino and Alameda Park, lost hegemony over popular entertainment venues such as the National Stadium emerged in In the following decades, Santiago continued to grow unabated.

In , the city accumulated , inhabitants, in this figure rose to 1,, residents and the census of totaled 1,, santiaguinos. This growth was reflected in the urbanization of rural areas on the periphery, where families of middle and lower class with stable housing were established: For the upper class, it began to approach the foothills of Las Condes and La Reina sector.

The center, however, lost people leaving more space for the development of trade, banking and government. Regulation of the growth only began to be implemented during the s with the creation of various development plans for Greater Santiago, a concept that reflected the new reality of a much larger city.

In the Intercommunal Plan of Santiago was released. The celebration of the World Cup in gave new impetus to implement plans for city improvement. Finally, the Edificio Diego Portales was constructed in In the new International Airport Pudahuel was opened, and, after years of discussion, in construction began on the Santiago Metro.

The first phase ran beneath the western section of the Alameda and was opened in The Metro would become one of the most prestigious buildings in the city. In the following years it continued to expand, with two perpendicular lines in place by the end of Building telecommunications infrastructure was also an important development of this period, as reflected in the construction of the Torre Entel , which since its construction in has become one of the symbols of the capital and the tallest structure in the country for two decades.

After the coup of and the establishment of the military regime , major changes in urban planning did not take place until the s, when the government adopted a neoliberal economic model.

In , the master plan was amended. The urban area was extended to more than 62 ha for real estate development. This created urban sprawl, especially in La Florida , with the city reaching 40 ha in size in the early s.

The census showed that Santiago had become the country's most populous municipality with , inhabitants. Meanwhile, a strong earthquake struck the city on 3 March Although it caused few casualties, it left many people homeless and destroyed many old buildings. With the start of the transition to democracy in , the city of Santiago had surpassed the three million inhabitants, with the majority living in the south: Meanwhile, high-income families moved into the foothills, now called Barrio Alto , increasing the population of Las Condes and giving rise to new communes like Vitacura and Lo Barnechea.

The Providencia Avenue area became an important commercial hub in the eastern sector. This development was extended to Barrio Alto , which became an attractive location for the construction of high-rise buildings. Major companies and financial corporations were established in the area, which gave rise to a thriving modern business center known as Sanhattan.

The departure of these companies to Barrio Alto and the construction of shopping centers all around the city created a crisis in the city center. To reinvent the area, the main shopping streets were turned into pedestrian walkways, such as the Paseo Ahumada , and the government instituted tax benefits for the construction of residential buildings, which attracted young adults. The city began to face a series of problems generated by disorganized growth.

Air pollution reached critical levels during the winter months and a layer of smog settled over the city. The authorities adopted legislative measures to reduce industrial pollution and placed restrictions on vehicle use. The Metro was expanded considerably, current lines were extended and three new lines were built between and in the southeastern sector.

In the case of buses , the system underwent a major reform in the early s. In master plan known as Transantiago was established. It has faced a number of problems since its launch.

Entering the twenty-first century, rapid development persisted in Santiago. The development of tall buildings continues in the eastern sector, which culminated in the opening of the skyscrapers Titanium La Portada and Gran Torre Santiago in the Costanera Center complex. However, socioeconomic inequality and geosocial fragmentation remain two of the most important problems in both the city and the country. On 27 February , a strong earthquake was felt in the capital, causing some damage to old buildings.

However, some modern buildings were also rendered uninhabitable. This generated much debate about the actual implementation of mandatory earthquake standards in the modern architecture of Santiago. The city lies in the center of the Santiago Basin , a large bowl-shaped valley consisting of broad and fertile lands surrounded by mountains.

The Mapocho River flows through the city. The city is flanked by the main chain of the Andes to the east and the Chilean Coastal Range to the west. At the southern border lies the Angostura de Paine , an elongated spur of the Andes that almost reaches the coast. Cerro El Plomo is the highest mountain visible from Santiago's urban area. During recent decades, urban growth has outgrown the boundaries of the city, expanding to the east up the slopes of the Andean Precordillera.

In both the climate observed is "warm temperate with long dry season", that is a Mediterranean Csb climate. There is significant variation within the city, with rainfall at the lower-elevation Pudahuel site near the airport being about 20 percent lower than at the older Quinta Normal site near the city centre. For instance, in , the fourth wettest year on record with Precipitation is usually only rain, as snowfall only occurs in the Andes and Precordillera , being rare in eastern districts, and extremely rare in most of the city.

The period between and has been registered 9 snowfalls and only two have been measured in the central sector and The amount of snow registered in Santiago on July 15, ranged between 3. Santiago's location within a watershed is one of the most important factors determining the climate of the city. It also prevents the entry of air masses, with the exception of some coastal low clouds that penetrate to the basin through the river valleys.

Due to Santiago's location on the Pacific Ring of Fire at the boundary of the Nazca and South American plates , it experiences a significant amount of tectonic activity.

The Valdivia earthquake and the Algarrobo earthquake both caused damage in Santiago, and led to the development of strict building codes with a view to minimising future earthquake damage. In , Chile was struck by the sixth largest earthquake ever recorded , reaching 8.

Santiago's air is the most polluted air in Chile. A study by a Chilean university found in that pollution in Santiago had doubled. A final major source of Santiago air pollution, one that continues year-round, is the smelter of the El Teniente copper mine. During winter months, Thermal inversion a meteorological phenomenon whereby a stable layer of warm air holds down colder air close to the ground causes high levels of smog and air pollution to be trapped and concentrated within the Central Valley.

The Mapocho River , which crosses the city from the northeast to the southwest of the Central Valley , remains contaminated by household, agricultural, and industrial sewage, and by upstream copper-mining waste there are a number of copper mines in the Andes east of Santiago , which is dumped untreated into the river.

According to data collected in the census by the National Institute of Statistics, the Santiago metropolitan area population reached 5,, inhabitants, equivalent to This figure reflects broad growth in the population of the city during the 20th century: The growth of Santiago has undergone several changes over the course of its history.

In its early years, the city had a rate of growth 2. During the 20th century, Santiago experienced a demographic explosion as it absorbed migration from mining camps in northern Chile during the economic crisis of the s. The population surged again via migration from rural sectors between and This migration was coupled with high fertility rates, and annual growth reached 4.

Growth has declined, reaching 1. The size of the city expanded constantly; The 20, hectares Santiago covered in doubled by , reaching 64, hectares in The population of Santiago [33] has seen a steady increase in recent years.

In the total population under 20 years was Estimates in show that For the year , it is estimated that the figures will be Which Countries Receive U. Which Sectors are Funded by Foreign Assistance? Scroll to learn more. How is Foreign Assistance Categorized?

Click to learn more about each category and its respective sectors. Democracy, Human Rights, and Governance To promote and strengthen effective democracies in recipient states and move them along a continuum toward democratic consolidation.

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