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Hurricane Ethel quickly developed in the Central Gulf of Mexico before moving accelerating northward along the extreme southeast sections of the Mississippi Delta, before moving inland at Biloxi. Ships at Balize Pilottown suffered a strong gale for 24 hours, but only 3 ships were grounded. August 16th, Danny: Some folks there must be lovely and interesting, but I sure as hell didn't find them. It remains the second deadliest disaster in America behind the Galveston Hurricane of [over dead] and the Johnstown, PA flood of [2, dead]. She married Louis F. By the 21st, waters were at their highest level on Lake Charles, flowing onto Ryan Street.

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Clete enjoyed wintering in Texas, golfing, playing cards, cheering on the Cubs, Bears and Hawkeyes, and spending time with his family and grandchildren.

Clete was preceded in death by his parents; his parents-in-law Frank and Bernadette McPoland; brother Leon Harriet Maiers; brother Wilmer "Wimp" Maiers; sister-in-law Laura Maiers; brother-in-law Jerry Kluesner; and several brothers- and sisters-in-law on the McPoland and Anstoetter sides of the family.

Memorials may be made to Hospice of Dubuque. Clete's family would like to thank all the doctors, nurses and staff at Mercy and the University of Iowa Hospitals. A celebration of Donald's life will be held at 11 A. Burial will be at the Fairview Cemetery, Farley, Iowa. He was educated in Farley schools. Donald had first worked at Farley and Loetscher's in Dubuque for a couple years. He then worked on the assembly line at John Deere Dubuque Works for over 30 years, retiring in Martin 77, of Dubuque, died Saturday, August 25, surrounded by her loving family.

Friends may call from 3: Together they raised three children Ron, Jodi and Julie. He preceded her in death on May 23, Carole later met and spent 18 years with Robert Richardson. He preceded her in death on May 16, She enjoyed doing all types of crafts, cooking and listening to Willie Nelson. Carole loved the changing of the seasons with Christmas being a special time of year for her. She embraced everything from decorating to baking to listening to holiday music.

Carole cherished gatherings with family, grandchildren and friends. She loved all children - no matter if she knew them or not and enjoyed the companionship of her two dogs, Maggie and Scooter. The Martin family wishes to extend a special thank you to Hospice of Dubuque , especially Cindy, for their compassion and support.

Shireman, age 74, of Dubuque, was called home peacefully at 3: To honor Andrea's life, funeral services will be held at 6: To celebrate Andrea's life, family and friends may visit from 2: Burial will be in Seventh Day Adventist Cemetery. It was through her involvement in those organizations that she would meet and eventually marry the love of her life, Dan Shireman. The two were united in marriage on August 8, , in Dubuque, and were truly blessed and thankful to have just celebrated their 21st anniversary earlier this month.

Andrea and Dan continued to work with the homeless in Dubuque and were always honored to be able to participate in the Christmas Dinner's at Loras College, and with the End of Summer B. Become Active, Stop Homelessness. She had a larger than life personality perfectly packed into her small 4'10" frame; but when combined with her boundless energy and unceasing spirit of love, Andrea would easily tower over anyone who stood in her way. Andrea was non-judgemental at her core and thrived on living life to its fullest; always quick with a story, or a joke, to unite the room around her.

Our world, and surely our community are going to be missing the undeniably generous mind, body and soul of Andrea moving forward. Her positive impact has been both invisible, and yet tangible in countless lives over the years. We know Andrea accepted Yeshua into her heart, and through her faith and actions while she resided here on earth, He has surely accepted her today. We hope she is wandering peacefully along the heavenly beaches with her metal detector firmly in hand, and thankfully we know that her eternal family who has been awaiting her arrival is currently catching her up on the good news that in her new world everything is perfect everyday and nobody will ever need another advocate working diligently in the name of love.

Time to rest Andrea and job well done Thy good and faithful servant! Andrea was preceded in death by her parents; her grandson, Adam Voshell; a sister, Julia Aldrich; and a brother, Gary Lucy.

Thursday, August 30th, at St. Joseph Church, Key West with Rev. Burial will follow in Mount Olivet Cemetery. In his younger years he grew-up on his family farm located off Military Road. He attended a one room school house until 8th grade where he completed his education at Dubuque Senior High School. He grew up with a love of playing, watching and coaching baseball. In he and his brother Joe had the honor of playing on the only state championship baseball team Dubuque Senior High School has ever won.

One of his fondest memories was playing in tournaments catching for his brother Joe while his brother Bob played centerfield. In he met the love of his life, Sally Decker, at a euchre tournament at the 12 Mile House. They dated and in they married. Throughout the early years of marriage, Jimmy continued his love for baseball playing semi-pro.

He was invited to catch at the White Sox training camp in Florida. Upon being injured, he returned home to be with Sally, raise his children and in moved to Key West, Iowa which became the family home. Friends and family were extremely important to Jim. Jimmy and Sally created a welcoming environment for all to gather around their kitchen table for endless conversation. For many years they enjoyed going on trips with friends from Happy's Place and for 50 years played in a couple's card club.

Jim took great pleasure supporting his children and grandchildren in their numerous activities throughout life. To some, Jimmy appeared rough around the edges, but beneath that exterior he had a heart of gold. He was kind father, loyal friend and incredibly hard working.

Doing for others brought him genuine happiness. If you asked for his opinion, he would give it to you honestly and unfiltered. He enjoyed talking about politics and economics. He loved to keep himself busy and developed a pleasure in grass cutting, card playing and planning projects big and small.

Jimmy enjoyed simple things in life like traditional food, eating ice cream, wearing a ball cap and blue shirts. As time went on he found satisfaction staying closer to home, celebrating holidays with his family and going out to dinner with his love Sally. His was a straightforward and easy man who was incredibly proud of all of his children and grandchildren. His face would truly light up upon seeing his great-grandchildren. More than any family member or friend, his love and devotion for his wife Sally was never ending and truly unconditional.

Jimmy will be deeply missed by all he has touched but no one greater than his love for 59 years, Sally. He was preceded in death by his parents; Walter and Gladys Hoerner. Mangers, 61, of Dubuque, Iowa passed away on August 24th, at home surrounded by his wife and children after a courageous battle with brain cancer. Wednesday, August 29th, at St. He worked for 38 years at American Trust and Savings Bank in the accounting dept. He enjoyed woodworking, gardening, hunting, and giving wagon rides to the grandkids with the lawnmower.

He recently rebuilt a Buick GS with his son Steven. He like to cheer on the Minnesota Vikings with his grandson Brandon, and like to cheer on St. Louis Cardinals to rival Chicago Cubs with his wife Kim.

Brother-in-law Alfred Kris Engling Jr. Monga and nurse Jody, and Dr. Salas and nurse Kristy, along with Kim and Dave's many friends for all their wonderful care and kindness. Dugan, age 88, of Dubuque, was called home peacefully at 5: To honor Don's life, funeral services will be held at To celebrate Don's life, family and friends may visit from 3: Don was a graduate of Dubuque Senior High School and went on to honorably serve his country with the U.

Navy during the Korean War. Don was united in marriage to the love of his life, Marjorie Gibbons, on December 15, , in San Francisco, California, and they would be blessed with 67 wonderful years together, and 5 adored children.

Don was raised with a strong work ethic, and would put his talents to good use with the John Deere Dubuque Works for many years until his well earned retirement had finally arrived in Don was very active within the community and was also a longtime member of the Elk's Club, and a faithful member of his beloved St. His commitment to his country was undeniable and Don regularly put his patriotism on display with the American Legion Dubuque Post 6 as a loyal member of the funeral detail who played taps for countless military funerals in the Dubuque community, as well as at many special events honoring veterans around the Tri-State area.

In his free time, Don not only enjoyed working on a little family genealogy research, but he was also quite an avid history buff who absolutely reveled in gathering any new information which would take his imagination back in time. We are deeply saddened at the loss of our dear husband, dad and grandpa, but thankfully find some comfort in knowing that he is now free from the health issues which have plagued him these past few months.

We look forward to being reunited with Don once again in time, but until then we will remain grateful for the memories he leaves behind, and also for the legacy of honor he role modeled so effortlessly throughout his 88 year journey among us. Don was preceded in death by his parents; a daughter, Linda Doyle; and a grandson, Matthew Doyle.

Pitzen Timmerman, 73, of St. Donatus, Iowa, formerly of Dickeyville, Wisconsin, passed away Friday morning, August 24, at home following a short illness. Funeral services will be She was united in marriage to Burnell J.

He preceded her in death on September 18, She loved cruises, especially to Hawaii and Vancouver. Janet was an excellent wife and mother. Her favorite past-time was setting on her front porch and visiting with friends and neighbors. She also enjoyed quilting and baking, especially jelly rolls.

A special thank you to the St. Donatus Community for their love and support, throughout all of her years in St. Donatus, to her family, and to the nurses and staff from Hospice of Dubuque for the excellent care given our mother. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital in Madison. A Celebration of Life will be held from p.

Wednesday, August 29, , at Sunset Lanes in Dickeyville. A Memorial Mass will be at Thursday, August 30, , at Holy Ghost Church in Dickeyville, with burial immediately following in the church cemetery with military honors. Friends may call after 9: Thursday at the church before the service. Danny was a loving husband and father. In his free time he enjoyed cruising with Mary in his Oldmobile Convertible and socializing with the people he loved.

Danny was a very unselfish person always putting the needs of others before his own. As a patriot, he was proud of his service and promoted respect for the flag.

A special thank you to all the family and friends for their love and support through this difficult time. Funeral services will be 1 p. Burial will be in Linwood Cemetery, where military honors will be conducted. A visitation will be held from Thursday at the funeral home.

He served his country in the Navy, and attended Allied Institute of Technology where he graduated in from their drafting program. He led his family to the Lord and persevered as a young widowed father, after Helen died of cancer, raising their two teenage children to adulthood.

He was an artist who enjoyed painting a variety of subjects, including portraits of his children, grandchildren and even the Mona Lisa and American Gothic. He had a great sense of humor, loved his family, and took great joy in his grandsons - he could often be seen playing Batman, Ninja Turtles, cowboy, teacher, and other games with them. His family would like to extend a special thank you to the staff of Tabor Hills Healthcare Facility for their professional and loving care and support over the last several years.

Marylou was raised in the Colesburg area and graduated from Colesburg High School in Marylou taught sixth grade in Arlington for two years. Three children were born to this union. The couple farmed together west of Greeley.

Marylou and Jack worked their land and raised livestock together until his death in Marylou remained on the farm until when she moved to her home in Manchester. In , Marylou moved to the Meadows.

Marylou was active in many farm-related organizations. She was a past 4-H leader for the Greeley Go Getters. Marylou served as the past president of the Delaware County Cow Bells. She also served on the Delaware County Farm Bureau Board for 41 years and acted as the board secretary for 25 years. She was also a member of the Rebecca Circle 3 at the Greeley church. Marylou enjoyed working crossword puzzles.

She was an avid fan of the Iowa Hawkeyes football and basketball teams. Marylou always enjoyed driving her large pickup trucks around the countryside. While at the Meadows, she enjoyed going out on the various outings with her friends.

Marylou's family would like to thank the staff at the Meadows for all of their wonderful care. Memorials may be directed to the Greeley Fire Department or a charity of your choice. There will be a 2: Friends may also call one hour before the service at the church on Wednesday. Moyle, age 87, of Dubuque, was called home peacefully at 5: To honor Blanche's life, funeral services will be held at To celebrate Blanche's life, family and friends may visit from Blanche was born and raised in the beautiful rolling hills of Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.

She laid eyes on Elwin and knew he was the one. She was united in marriage to the love of her life, Elwin Moyle, on June 28, , in Prairie du Chien and they were gratefully blessed with 2 loving children, Laurie and Tim. Blanche was a devoted full-time wife, mother and homemaker, who took great pride in not only caring for her home, but mostly in loving and nurturing her family along the way. In their younger years, they enjoyed traveling in their camper with their children and eventually the grandchildren.

Blanche was an avid fisher, she liked to outfish Elwin when it came to trout fishing and they both put in hundreds of miles over the years foraging for mushrooms, nuts and berries all over eastern Iowa for fun up until her last few months on earth.

When a little downtime would periodically find its way into Blanche's day, you could easily find her relaxing quietly while working on her latest beautiful quilt, dipping a paint brush on her pallet while creating her next masterpiece on the canvas before her or cultivating her garden from seed which she was so proud of. She loved her polka music on Wednesday and computer games to "keep her mind sharp. She was a longtime member of Holy Ghost Church and to know that her last family gathering would be held in her church brought Blanche true peace of mind.

We will miss our dearly sweet and loveable Blanche with all of our being, but we are beyond grateful for the 87 years the Lord was generous enough to share her with us and we know that she is surely enjoying a new and eternal family reunion of her very own loved ones, especially her son, Tim, who were called home ahead of her.

Thank you for all of the memories you've left behind to help mend our broken hearts Blanche, and may the Lord keep you safe in His loving arms until we meet again! The family would like to extend many thanks to Hospice of Dubuque and the nurses on the 5th floor of Finley Hospital.

A celebration of Frances' life will be held at 11 A. Visitation will be held from 2 to 5 P. She was the fourth of nine children and was raised in the Fulton, Iowa area. Frances moved to Maquoketa when she entered high school and worked as what today would be called a nanny for Glen and Mildred Woods. They were married on March 8, in Maquoketa, Iowa. Frances worked at various restaurants in Maquoketa and was famous for her good-old-fashioned home cooking, most notably for her prize-winning pies and candies.

Her last accomplishment professionally was opening her own restaurant, "Frances' Kitchen" at the United Livestock Sales Barn. After retirement she enjoyed going to Euchre tournaments with friends and sitting at the Bridge Table trying for a Grand Slam.

In lieu of other expressions of sympathy, memorials may be directed to the United Church of Christ in Maquoketa. Mass of Christian Burial will be 11 a. Saturday, August 25, at St. Visitation will be from 8: He married Alverna Cogan on May 2, at St. Mary's Church in East Dubuque. She preceded him in death on September 26, Later he was employed by the Sinsinawa Dominicans until his retirement. Jerome was a member of St. He loved fishing and gardening.

He was a big Dodger, Badgers and Packers fan. Jerome loved spending time with his grandson Rory and great-grandchildren Amelia and Elliott. He would have the biggest smile when he would see Amelia and Elliott. Online condolences may be left for the family atwww. A celebration of Esther's life will be held at 10 A. Visitation will be held prior to the service from 9 A. Burial will be at the Monmouth, Iowa Cemetery. Esther married Earl Campbell and they farmed in the Fulton area.

Later, she married Jack Schwenker and they lived in Baldwin. In her later years she married Dean Rickels. They lived their retirement years in Oxford Junction, Iowa. She enjoyed gardening and loved her yard. In lieu of other expressions of sympathy, an Esther S.

Rickels memorial fund has been established. Ken Ginter, 68, of Dubuque, passed away Saturday, August 18, at home, surrounded by family, after a long battle with cancer. Mass will be at 7 p. Phil Gibbs will officiate. Ken was a man who believed in the value of family and was committed to doing what was right. Ken was a sports fanatic - he cheered on the Packers and cried when his Cubbies finally did it.

He was preceded in death by his father; his brother Richard; his step-father Leonard Phillips; his father-in-law, John Breitbach. Visitation will be from 4 to 7 p.

Mass of Christian Burial will be held at 10 a. She joined the Cadet Nurse Corp from to On August 28, she married Donald Lattner at St.

Patrick's Church in Chicago. He preceded her in death on July 19, Lorry was a devoted wife, mother, and grandmother. She was a dedicated sister, aunt, and friend to many. She also used her nursing skill to care for her husband and lent assistance to many relatives and friends. Lorry was a member of St. She is survived by a son, Michael D.

Memorials may be made to St. Phillip Mensah officiating and Deacon Jim Schmidt as homilist. Burial will follow at Mount Olivet Cemetery. She married Louis F. He preceded her in death on April 24, Mom was educated in the Dubuque and Dubuque County Schools. She worked for several local families during her youth. Mom and Dad farmed in Zwingle before moving to Key West where they eventually built our family home.

Our Mom was best known for her Apple and Pear Pies. She was an avid canner of the multiple vegetables and fruits from Dad's gardens. Mom had a green thumb for house plants. Our Mom was known as a "social butterfly" by her friends in her apartment building. She enjoyed playing bingo and being a bingo caller.

Above all was her love of family. She especially loved spending time with her many grandchildren and great grandchildren. Mom was preceded in death by our father Louis, her daughter Debbie, her son Dale, a daughter-in-law Patricia, grandson Jason, her parents, two sisters Lucille and Evelyn and two brothers Clarence and Alvin. A private military graveside service and burial was held from the Evergreen Cemetery, Delmar, Iowa. No public visitation or services are planned.

To honor Jodie's life, funeral services will be held at 6: To celebrate Jodie's life, family and friends may visit from 2: Burial will be in Center Grove Cemetery. Jodie has surely been a blessing upon this world during her 57 year earthly journey and her love for Jesus, her family and others were continually on display.

Jodie thrived on being called "Mom", and her devotion to foster care finally led to her adopting 3 wonderful children, whom eventually become her very own. She also faithfully invested over 24 years at Hills and Dales, caring for and nurturing some of her most precious children outside of her home.

Jodie was undeniably very generous with her time, talents and treasure when it came to her church family and another 20 years of her personal time was joyfully spent in the church nursery. Her faith and love for her Lord and Savior were of the utmost importance to Jodie and she loved to share the message of salvation with anyone whose spirit was moved enough to listen. We find our hearts in a state of complete shock today with the sudden absence of Jodie from our world.

We trust that she is home in Heaven today, and for that we are foundationally grateful and humbled; but to know that we've received our last packet of pens from Jodie's smiling face, or heard our final "Duck", stated with absolute authority, is a mortal realization that simply hurts at our core. We will miss Jodie more than she could ever know, but we will diligently pray for strength in the days ahead to find peace within until we see her beautiful soul again.

Thank you Jodie for all you taught us and may we carry your honorable legacy forward with pride! She raised her son Tom as a single working mother and rose to management in information technology at the University of Illinois, before retiring with her second husband Richard to their tree farm in Guilford Township. She pursued organic gardening and organic living with a passion as a Master Gardener, making numerous presentations throughout Jo Daviess County. During her life, she was an animal advocate, boxer, musician, and scuba diver, with a curiosity for science that she passed on to her son.

She was an incredibly talented and creative cook and passed her love of cooking down to her granddaughter. In the words of her grandson, "She made the best breakfast and always was a fun person to be around. She always knew how to put a smile on all of our faces with her crazy sense of humor.

She acted as she wished. Burial is in the Mount Carmel cemetery. She was a high school art and elementary teacher in Emmetsburg, Iowa. She ministered as a hospital volunteer in Albuquerque, N. She entered the BVM congregation on Sept.

She was preceded in death by her parents, a brother John, Jr. Mildred and brother-in-law John Starcevich. Make a donation in Sister's honor. Raphael's Cathedral in Dubuque, with Fr. He married Celia A. Lewis on January 15, at St. Terry worked at John Deere - Dubuque Works for 40 years, retiring in He enjoyed playing baseball and softball in his younger years, playing golf after retirement, and spending time with his family.

He was also a member of St. Calvary Cemetery with full military honors accorded by the American Legion, Post 6. He was honorably discharged. On February 11, he married Sandra Paar. She preceded him in death on December 6, Bob was employed at John Deere Dubuque Works for over 30 years, retiring as a supervisor. Bob enjoyed gardening, candle making, traveling, woodworking, playing euchre and his "outlaw" music - especially Johnny Cash.

The Kaiser family wishes to thank the staffs at Sunset Park Place and Hospice of Dubuque for their loving care and support. Zasada, 84, of Dubuque, Iowa passed away on Friday, August 17, at home surrounded by his family. Military honors by the Dubuque Marine Corps League to follow services. Family and friends may gather after Tuesday at the funeral home until time of service.

Entombment will be at a later date in Mount Olivet Cemetery. After high school he graduated from apprenticeship school and became a journeyman carpenter. He worked for John Deere in Dubuque for 32 years retiring in Gene loved life, traveling, good cooking and following his grandchildren on Facebook.

The family wishes to thank Dr. Mark Herman and his staff and the staff at Hospice of Dubuque for all the wonderful care they gave to Gene. Mass will be at 10 a. Thomas Toale will officiate. Burial will be at Mount Calvary Cemetery following the mass. Stephen was dearly loved by his family and friends.

He genuinely enjoyed helping others out of the goodness in his heart and always worked with a devotion of serving the Lord. All who knew Stevie will hold him close to their hearts. Burial will follow in Resurrection Cemetery. Visitation will be from 1: He also previously worked at Ritehite. Tim was an avid Minnesota Viking fan, he enjoyed bowling, being outdoors, looking for morels and ginseng, fishing, and hunting.

He enjoyed helping others and was always willing to lend a helping hand. He loved spending time with his family especially his grandson Jace. His mother and father-in-law Richard and Judy Jacobs and their family along with many nieces and nephews.

Friends and relatives of Irwin may call from 2: Martin's Catholic Church in Cascade, Iowa, where a wake service will be held at 2: Services for Irwin will be held at He received his education at St.

On May 28, he was united in marriage to Luann Menster at St. Irwin had a great love for baseball and was a great baseball player himself, having being inducted into the Dubuque County Hall of Fame in He enjoyed many years coaching not only his children but other youth as well.

He was also an avid Chicago Cubs fan with one of his greatest memories being that of the Chicago Cubs winning the World Series in He had such a warm relationship and connection to so many young people, making all of them feel special and they were so special to him. He also enjoyed fishing, hunting and gardening, but Irwin's greatest joy in life was being a Husband, Father and Papa.

He was a member of St. Matthias Parish in Cascade. Irwin was also a member of the Brotherhood of the Great Squirrel Shootout. He is preceded in death by his parents; father and mother-in-law, Ray "Rabbit" and Florence Menster, one brother, Merlin E.

Engelman and the doctors, nurses and hospital staff at the Mercy Medical Center and Hospice of Dubuque. Burkle, 79, of Dyersville passed away Wednesday, August 15, , at Mercy Medical Center in Dubuque from complications related to surgery. Visitation will continue Saturday from am at Kramer Funeral Home prior to funeral services. Ralph Davis will officiate. She married Donald Burkle on June 23, , in Petersburg.

Together they farmed near Dyersville until moving to town in Lois was an extraordinary farm wife who loved quilting, cooking and baking, and taking pictures. She also kept up the family tree information. Survivors include her husband, Donald Burkle, children: She was preceded in death by her parents, her son, Timothy Jude Burkle in ; siblings: David Goedken in infancy, Floyd Goedken, Sr.

Angela Goedken, and Martin Goedken; in-laws: In keeping with the wishes of Kelly, there will be no funeral services and a private family remembrance will be held at a later date. Kelly graduated from Cuba City High School. She worked many years as a bartender, waitress, and cook at various local establishments.

She enjoyed camping, time on the Harley, cooking, gardening, and spending time with her many cats and dogs, including special companion Lady. Thank you to family and many friends who supported Kelly throughout the years. Special thanks to the entire staff of Tri State Dialysis of Platteville, neighbors, special friends Sharon and Janet, and Hospice of Dubuque who provided Kelly with comfort in her final days.

Neff, 66, of Maquoketa, Iowa, passed away on Monday morning, August 13, , at his home. Friends and family may gather in remembrance of Randy on Friday, August 17, , from 6 to 8 P. Cremation rites have been accorded. He attended Clinton schools and later earned his GED. Randy had first worked for the Rock Island Railroad until it closed. He then worked as a forklift operator for International Paper in Clinton for many years, and lastly as a security guard at Family Dollar in Maquoketa.

Randy was an avid fisherman, Cubs fan, and enjoyed gardening and sharing produce with friends and family. He loved flowers and could make beautiful arrangements, and was a self-taught musician playing the guitar and drums.

Visitation will be from 4 - 8 p. Bill was born on February 6, , the first born child of William N. He was a graduate of the East Dubuque High School, class of Bill served proudly and honorably in the U. He previously was employed at Fred Jackson Tuckpointing Company and later was self-employed in East Dubuque, until his retirement in Bill was a sweet and gentle person who enjoyed visiting with people in downtown East Dubuque.

The researchers conclude that previous mental health disorders, such as clinical depression, put individuals more at risk for both suicide and gambling problems. In other words, gambling itself does not cause suicide attempts. Nevada, a state in which gambling is widely practiced, had the third-highest suicide rate in the nation in This was nearly twice the national average of Many mental health experts attribute Nevada's high suicide rate to the huge inflow of new residents who lack a support system of family and friends.

Loneliness and despair are more likely to overwhelm such people than those who have an emotional safety net in place. In general, suicide rates are higher in the western states than in any other region.

Even Utah, which allows no legal gambling, had the seventeenth-highest suicide rate in , with a rate of fourteen suicides per one hundred thousand population. Establishing a definitive link between gambling habits and bankruptcy is difficult. The researchers compare bankruptcy-filing rates during for 3, counties. They find that the counties in which casinos operated had a bankruptcy rate that was The AGA disputes the researchers' findings by pointing out that other factors were not considered, such as liberal bankruptcy laws and the ease with which credit cards can be obtained.

Ernest Goss and Edward A. According to their analysis, those counties actually saw a drop in bankruptcies when the casinos first opened. The researchers reason that the insurgence of revenue and jobs brought in by the casino likely helped the residents' financial situation. However, after a casino was open for nine years bankruptcies trended the other way.

Eventually, the bankruptcy rate in a county with a casino was 2. Many casinos operate self-exclusion programs in which people can voluntarily ban themselves from casinos. A number of states also offer self-exclusion programs for all casinos within their borders. For example, Missouri's Voluntary Exclusion Programhttp: The Missouri Gaming Commission requires that the. The casinos are not responsible for barring listed people from the casinos, but anyone listed is to be arrested for trespassing if he or she violates the ban and is discovered in a casino.

However, self-excluded people can enter the casino for employment purposes. Programs in other states are similar. If a self-excluded person is discovered in an Illinois casino, his or her chips and tokens are taken away and their value is donated to charity. The Illinois self-exclusion program runs for a minimum of five years. After that time, people can be removed from the program if they provide written documentation from a licensed mental health professional that they are no longer problem gamblers.

Self-exclusion in Michigan is permanent; a person who chooses to be on the Disassociated Persons List is banned for life from Detroit casinos. The commission maintains a list of those who have joined the program and shares the list with the casinos. Besides casinos and states, companies that provide the ATMs and cash-advance services for casinos have put self-exclusion programs into place. For example, Global Payments provides self-exclusion and even self-limit services for people with gambling problems.

Those who put their names on the self-exclusion list are denied money or cash advances, whereas the self-limit program puts a limit on how much money patrons can withdraw in a specified period. All the states operate gambling hotlines that either refer callers to other groups for help or provide counseling over the phone.

Between its inception and the end of the hotline had received nearly twenty thousand calls. Missouri also offers free treatment to residents suffering from problem gambling and to their families. The program is administered by the Department of Mental Health through a network of private mental health providers who have been certified as compulsive-gambling counselors.

Bock notes that in , people received free treatment for gambling addiction through this program. Iowa' Department of Public Health tracks statistics on clients admitted to its gambling treatment program. Four Years of Evidence October 25, , http: These actions include the proper training of employees and the promotion of responsible gambling on company Web sites and through brochures and signs posted at the casinos. AGA members also agree to provide opportunities for patrons to self-exclude themselves from casino play.

The legal gambling age in all commercial casinos in the United States is twenty-one; in tribal casinos it varies from eighteen to twenty-one. The AGA indicates in State of the States that participants were asked in who they thought bore the most responsibility for addressing the problem of underage gambling in the United States.

The so-called slots-for-tots regulation is supposed to prevent the introduction of slot machines displaying cartoon characters that might appeal to children. The issue receives particular attention in Nevada because the state's casinos allow escorted children to walk through the casino.

Most states prohibit the passage of minors through the gambling area. The AGA lists in Code of Conduct for Responsible Gaming a number of rules that member casinos should follow to ensure that minors do not gamble in casinos.

For example, they should not display cartoon figures, pictures of underage people, or pictures of collegiate sports athletes on the casino floor. They are also supposed to stop any minor from loitering on the casino floor, and casino employees are to be trained to deal with minors who attempt to buy alcohol or gamble. Casinos seem to be successful in following the guidelines. A total of 6, minors tried to enter the three Detroit casinos in , but were denied entry.

Twenty-four minors were caught on casino premises and escorted out by casino personnel, and twenty-three other minors were taken into custody by law enforcement agencies. Gambling and politics have always been linked, largely because casinos and other gaming establishments are so heavily regulated, the number of licenses available is often limited, and so much money can be made by. Lobbying a common factor in the political system can easily turn into influence peddling and bribery at all levels of government.

Some jurisdictions have become so concerned about the confluence of political pressure and money that they prohibit casino license applicants from making contributions to political candidates. Mississippi decided to prevent this temptation by setting no limit on the number of casinos that can be built.

State officials claimed their policy would prevent the bribery, extortion, and favoritism that had plagued neighboring Louisiana, where the number of licenses available for riverboat casinos was set at fifteen. In May he was convicted of racketeering, extortion, and fraud and sentenced to ten years in prison.

On the federal level, politics and gambling intersect on issues that affect more than one state or Native American tribe. At that intersection, some people see opportunities to make a lot of money. One such operator was Jack Abramoff — , a prominent lobbyist in Washington, D. Many credit Abramoff and his colleagues with securing the defeat of the Internet Gambling Prohibition Act of The bill was one of the first anti — Internet gambling bills proposed in Congress.

It was passed in the U. Senate in and was put forth in the U. House of Representatives the following year. At the time, Abram-off was working for eLottery, an Internet site that wanted to sell state lottery tickets online. Their business was threatened by the legislation, so Abramoff sent money to conservative special interest groups to get them to pressure conservative House members to drop the bill because it contained exceptions for horse racing and jai alai.

Through procedural maneuvering, a two-thirds majority was needed to pass the bill; it failed. The representatives received so much pressure from their constituents that the House Republican leadership, fearing the party might lose four seats in the election, decided not to bring the bill up for another vote. Later in his career, Abramoff and his team defrauded Native American tribes out of millions of dollars. Typically, he promised that, as their lobbyist, he could secure funding from the government for special projects, such as wider roads or new schools, and that he could keep the government from interfering in their operations, including casinos.

In some instances, Abramoff worked against a tribe behind the scenes and then offered to help it out for huge sums of money. For example, in he and his colleagues were instrumental in shutting down the Speaking Rock Casino in El Paso , Texas. He then went to the Tigua Tribe, which operated the casino, and claimed that he and his colleagues could get Congress to reopen the casino.

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Modern Language Association http: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, , http: Plan, organize, direct, control, or coordinate gaming operations in a casino. Interview, hire, train, and evaluate new workers and create work schedules and station assignments. Associates or Bachelor's degree.

Hands-on experience may be substituted for formal education. Most managers gain experience in other casino jobs, typically as dealers, and have a broad knowledge of casino rules, regulations, procedures, and games.

The Economic and Social Effects of Casinos