Fukuoka | Japan

How many voices are in here? The sock is wet with blood. And then there are the psychological factors. The ability to put crew members to sleep for months at a time would be an awfully convenient thing to have. During this video of the Yogscast playing Trouble In Terrorist Town , Sips , after shooting at Smiffy , accuses him of being the traitor.

There are definitely more examples after this, but we're out of indices.

Introduction

Alvin glanced back to see if all his companions were still with him. Alystra was close behind, carrying the sphere of cold but ever-burning light that had revealed such horrors and such beauty since their adventure had begun.

The pale white radiance flooded the narrow corridor and splashed from the glittering walls; while its power lasted, they could see where they were going and could detect the presence of any visible dangers. But the greatest dangers in these caves, Alvin knew too well, were not the visible ones at all. Behind Alystra, struggling with the weight of their projectors, came Narrillian and Floranus.

Alvin wondered briefly why tose projectors were so heavy, since it would have been such a simple matter to provide them with gravity neutralizers.

He was always thinking of points like this, even in the midst of the most desperate adventures. When such thoughts crossed his mind, it seemed as if the structure of reality trembled for an instant, and that behind the world of the senses he caught a glimpse of another and totally different universe…. The corridor ended in a blank wall.

Had the arrow betrayed them again? No—even as they approached, the rock began to crumble into dust. Through the wall pierced a spinning metal spear, which broadened rapidly into a giant screw. Alvin and his friends moved back, waiting for the machine to force its way into the cave. With a deafening screech of metal upon rock—which surely must echo through all the recesses of the Mountain, and waken all its nightmare brood! A massive door opened, and Callistron appeared, shouting to them to hurry.

The adventure was over. Soon, as always happened, they would be home, and all the wonder, the terror, and the excitement would be behind them. They were tired and content. Alvin could tell from the tilt of the floor that the subterrene was heading down into the earth. Presumably Callistron knew what he was doing, and this was the way that led to home.

Yet it seemed a pity…. No one knows what the Crystal Mountain really looks like. How wonderful it would be to come out somewhere on its slopes, to see the sky and all the land around it. Even as he said these words, he somehow knew that they were wrong. Alystra gave a strangled scream, the interior of the subterrene wavered like an image seen through water, and behind and beyond the metal walls that surrounded him Alvin once more glimpsed that other universe.

The two worlds seemed in conflict, first one and then the other predominating. Then quite suddenly, it was all over. There was a snapping, rending sensation—and the dream had ended. Alvin was back in Diaspar, in his own familiar room, floating a foot or two above the floor as the gravity field protected him from the bruising contact of brute matter. Why, for example, did he not fit into the sagas?

Of all the thousands of forms of recreation in the city, these were the most popular. When you entered a saga, you were not merely a passive observer, as in the crude entertainments of primitive times which Alvin had sometimes sampled. You were an active participant and possessed—or seemed to possess—free will. The events and scenes which were the raw material of your adventures might have been prepared beforehand by forgotten artists, but there was enough flexibility to allow for wide variation.

You could go into these phantom worlds with your friends, seeking the excitement that did not exist in Diaspar—and as long as the dream lasted there was no way in which it could be distinguished from reality.

Indeed, who could be certain that Diaspar itself was not the dream? No one could ever exhaust all the sagas that had been conceived and recorded since the city began.

They played upon all the emotions and were of infinitely varying subtlety. Some—those popular among the very young—were uncomplicated dramas of adventure and discovery. Others were purely explorations of psychological states, while others again were exercises in logic or mathematics which could provide the keenest of delights to more sophisticated minds. Yet though the sagas seemed to satisfy his companions, they left Alvin with a feeling of incompleteness.

For all their color and excitement, their varying locales and themes, there was something missing. The sagas, he decided, never really got anywhere. They were always painted on such a narrow canvas. There were no great vistas, none of the rolling landscapes for which his soul craved. Above all, there was never a hint of the immensity in which the exploits of ancient man had really taken place—the luminous void between the stars and planets.

The artists who had planned the sagas had been infected by the same strange phobia that ruled all the citizens of Diaspar. Even their vicarious adventures must take place cozily indoors, in subterranean caverns, or in neat little valleys surrounded by mountains that shut out all the rest of the world. In Anne McCaffrey's novel Dragonsdawn it states that the first two things human colonists always do on a new world are:. Here on Terra coffee is one of the most popular drinks in the world, and there are many who cannot fully wake up and do work until they've had their morning cup of java.

Particularly the various branches of the military. There are many who say that the US Navy runs on coffee. Furthermore it is hard to exaggerate the effect coffee houses had on merchant trading and shipping. Ship-owners, merchants, and insurance houses made deals in the coffee houses over cups of "the new black liquor from Turkey".

In a science fictional future, spacecraft crew may be forbidden tobacco to avoid death by asphyxiation but you can bet your last rocket they will have some sort of caffeinated beverage.

But since science fiction authors can't resit using the old Call a Rabbit a "Smeerp" trick, they will have all sorts of strange names for coffee in a desperate attempt to convince the reader that they are not in Kansas anymore.

Occasionally in science fiction you will find species of deadly hyper-coffee with extreme effects. In Derelict for Trade they have Jakek which is a syntho coffee substitute the crew makes do with when times are lean. More realistically the previously mentioned human colonists will find that coffee refuses to grow on their new world so they will frantically have to find a replacement. Authors are fond of having new colonists complain about how disgusting the local ersatz coffee is and how they miss the real stuff.

Second and subsequent generations of colonists have never tasted honest-to-Joe coffee so they are satisfied with the substitute as long as it has plenty of caffeine. The Admiral spoke a few quick orders into thin air.

A minute later, a steward in a white coat entered with a tray bearing four cups of coffee — actually, an Planet Altan substitute that many of the Founders had found unpalatable. Sally snared a cup of coffee from the steward. She was learning to drink Navy coffee, which wasn't like anything else in the Galaxy. When the room was empty he poured a large glass of wine. It was poor quality stuff brought in after the blockade, but he hardly noticed.

Wine was officially forbidden on Levant, which meant that the hordes of wine sellers foisted off anything alcoholic on their customers, even wealthy ones like the Bury family. Horace Bury had never developed any real appreciation for expensive liquors. He bought them to show his wealth, and for entertaining; but for himself anything would do. Coffees were a different matter.

But Buckman liked to talk, and Bury at least had the time to listen. MacArthur was a beehive these days, frantically busy and crowded as hell. And there was room to pace in Bury's cabin. Or, Bury speculated cynically, he might like Bury's coffee. Bury had almost a dozen varieties of coffee beans, his own grinder, and filter cones to make it.

He was quite aware of how his coffee compared with that in the huge percolators about the ship. I've got news for all you teetotaler out there. Agriculture may have brought the rise of civilization, but archaeologists have found evidence that making beer pre-dated making barley bread by three thousand freaking years! Agriculture was not invented so people could have food, it was so people could have beer. Yeah, since then we've invented an alarming number of controlled substances, but as long as they stay controlled they will be hard to come by in rocketpunk outer space.

It's gonna be real hard to make a meth lab in a spaceship without anybody noticing. Plus all the added fun if it explodes, emits toxic fumes into the limited atmosphere, or sets the ship on fire.

But as long as you can make crude hooch by simply leaving a bottle of apple juice on the radiator, alcohol will be part of space culture. It is just too easy to make.

And any fool can make a moonshine still that uses vacuum instead of heat. Especially since there is an infinite supply of vacuum, right outside the hab module.

The interplanetary internet will have lots of easy-to-follow tutorials. Hopefully any idiots who venture into dangerous areas while plastered will merely cop a Darwin Award for themselves without taking along any innocent bystanders. If they just manage to kill or seriously injure others while remaining unscathed, I'm sure the surviving crew will be willing to give Darwin a hand. The survivors will just tell the first officer that it was a tragic airlock accident.

While most illegal drugs and other controlled substances are rather difficult to manufacture in the space environment, good old alcohol is relatively easy.

After all, convicts manage to make Pruno in prison; even with limited access to raw materials, workspace, and privacy from prison guards. In most cases, the actual production of alcohol from sugar is done by yeast cultures.

These cultures are almost impossible for the authorities to keep out of the hands of illegal brewer-masters of contraband alcoholic beverages. In the case of making wine, the yeast can be conveniently found already living on the grape skins. And if the CELSS is using yeast to make single-cell protein , there is no way to prevent moonshiners from obtaining a supply.

In the Australian government was considering making the national staple food Vegemite a controlled substance inspiring howls of outrage. Apparently home-brewers in remote areas were purchasing Vegemite in bulk and using it to make moonshine. After all, the main ingredient of Vegemite is leftover brewers' yeast extract not baker's yeast, brewers' yeast. In Australia there has already been a ban on Vegemite in prisons since the 's for the same reason.

Controlling it outside of prison is going to be an uphill battle. Needless to say, becoming drunk in an inherently dangerous environment such as deep space is a quick way to get yourself killed. In the US the legal drunk driving limit is 0. Armed Forces Act of prohibited the consumption of more than five units of alcohol 24 hours before duty and no alcohol was to be consumed in the 10 hours before duty. In Jerry Pournelle's Falkenberg's Legion series of science fiction novels the CoDominium navy and marines have no regulations against drinking alcohol, even on duty.

But there are severe penalties for rendering oneself unfit for duty penalties up to execution by firing squad. When deployed, CoDominium marines were commonly given a daily wine ration of half a liter per person.

A " wine " is an alcoholic beverage produced by yeast converting the sugar in fruit juice into ethanol. At some point the ethanol level rises high enough to kill off the yeast, halting production. A fortified wine is a wine with the alcohol content increased by adding some distilled spirits generally brandy, which is distilled wine. If the brandy is added before the wine fermentation is completed the resulting fortified wine will be sweet.

This is because the brandy kills off the yeast before all the sugar is consumed. Some anthropologists have a theory that wine was discovered by some cave-man who took a drink out of a puddle full of rotting fruit.

A " beer " is an alcoholic beverage produced from grain, usually barley or wheat. First the grain is " malted ": The malting process creates enzymes which can convert starch into sugar.

The malt is mixed with hot water to create what brewers call "wort" but we can call "yeast food. See " saccharification of starch ". After about two hours the malt enzymes has converted most of the starch into sugar, and the wort is boiled to get rid of some of the water.

After the wort is cooled, it is put in a fermenter along with hungry yeast. The yeast put on their bibs, whip out their knives and forks, and start gobbling sugar while excreting ethanol.

The extra yeast food means more alcohol. Note that when traveling, if the bacterial content of the local water is questionable, it is much safer to drink the local beer instead of the water. Use beer to brush your teeth as well. An ancient Egyptian tomb inscription boasted about the dear departed's generosity by saying "I gave bread to the hungry and beer to the thirsty".

Some anthropologists have a theory that early man invented agriculture not to increase the supply of food, but to increase the supply of beer. Since people have a tendency to be min-maxers , they looked for ways to increase the ethanol levels in their product.

The tried and true method is to use a distillery rig, aka a moonshine " still ". Such items have to heat up the source alcoholic beverage using fire, but in space the abundantly available vacuum can be used instead. John Reiher notes that you do NOT want to use a vacuum still on beer or any other mash containing hops. One of the essential hop oils, Myrcene, has a boiling point of If you're not careful, you'll end up with very hoppy ethyl alcohol i.

Conventional stills take advantage of the fact that water and alcohol have different volatility. That is, ethyl alcohol boils at a much lower temperature than water. Then you send the alcohol vapor through a condenser to turn it back into liquid. The alcohol drips out of the condenser into a jug. The condenser is that copper spiral tube the "worm" you see on classic moonshine stills. Copper is used because it absorbs sulfur-based compounds which would otherwise make the product taste like skunk juice.

The products of a still are called distilled beverage , spirit, liquor, or hard liquor. Whiskey and the like are made with pot stills where there is lots of water in the vapor sent to the condenser. Moonshine is made in moonshine stills, with very little water in the vapor. There are many kinds of distilled spirits. A " brandy " is distilled wine. A " whisky " is distilled from grain mash like beer's barley or wheat except whisky can also be made from corn or rye.

You can think of whisky as distilled beer without being utterly wrong. A " vodka " is generally distilled from fermented potato mash, its main feature is the almost total lack of flavorings.

Back in the 's during Prohibition in the US, amateurs made Bathtub gin. This lead to the creation of many gin cocktails, as the speakeasies desperately experimented with sugary flavors to mask the vile taste of the poorly made gin.

Everything old is new again. Enlisted spacecraft crew will also be eager to steal fruit juices from the quartermaster to doctor the foul product of their vacuum stills. Alcohol is absorbed into the blood stream slowly in the stomach, but the rate can be increased if the beverage is carbonated. This is why strong people who are apparently unaffected by a shot of whisky will sometimes start to giggle if they drink bubbly champagne carbonated wine.

Beer is carbonated, but it is so weak it needs all the help it can get. Champagne has more of a kick than non-carbonated wine. And a cocktail that includes some sort of carbonated mixer is most potent of all. It is also possible to have an alcoholic beverage as the focus of a science fiction story. A distillery that sent unmatured malt whisky into space to study the effect of near-zero gravity on flavour has described its findings as "groundbreaking".

The company had set up the experiment to investigate how micro-gravity would affect the behaviour of terpenes, the building blocks of flavour for many foods and wines as well as whisky spirits. The aftertaste is intense and long, with hints of wood, antiseptic lozenges and rubbery smoke.

Dr Bill Lumsden, Ardbeg's director of distilling and whisky creation, said: Members of Professor Sir Andre Geim's group at the University of Manchester, where graphene was first identified, were investigating the permiability of a closely related material called graphene oxide.

This is graphene which has been reacted with a strong oxidising agent, making it more soluble and easier to deal with. They created membranes made up of small pieces of graphene oxide which pile up like bricks to form an interlocked structure, and then tested how gas-proof they were by using the film as a lid for a container full of various gases.

They found that despite being times thinner than a human hair, it completely stopped Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Argon from escaping, to the limits of their measurements. It even stopped Helium which, being a tiny single atom will escape from party balloons very quickly, and can even diffuse out through a millimetre of glass. They then tried various liquids, and found similar behaviour for ethanol, hexane, acetone, decane and propanol vapour, but when they tried normal water it behaved as if the membrane wasn't there, escaping at least a hundred thousand times faster than any of the other materials.

They think the water is forming a layer one molecule thick between the layers of graphene, blocking the route for everything else, but if it dries out, this gap shrinks and seals up. To make use of this behaviour they put some vodka in the container, and left it for a few days. Normally ethanol evaporates faster than water so vodka gets weaker over time, but with their membrane, which blocked the ethanol, the vodka got stronger and stronger.

This is extremely interesting behaviour, as seperating water from other solvents is a huge part of many chemical processes. This is normally done by distillation, which takes a large amount of energy, and the process has to be repeated many times.

One side effect of this tech is booze. Because the graphene filters only let water pass through, a case of cheap 3. Undrinkable because the graphene filtration doesn't "distill" the beer, it concentrates it.

So if you take a highly hopped beer and graphene it, it becomes impossible to drink. Most folks can't drink that. There are few brave souls who will try a shot or two. But there is a fix for that. Eating a berry before quaffing some Spacer IPA results in the sweetest brew you ever drank. Some folks get addicted to that. Jacking , that's what I was thinking of. I had it happen to me once while I was living in Colorado Springs. It got cold enough that it froze the beer we had left out on the back porch nearly solid.

I cracked one open and out poured this syrupy liquid. It was also Miller, but that's another issue. I'd imagine all the wines, spirits, and various grain beverages would find a new life at the hands of a " wiper ", AKA, the guy who runs a graphene "still". Yes, I know about your still. Or start sipping the reactor coolant.

But here are a few points you might not think of. There will be pictures. Fourth, my surgical oxygen does not exist to help you sober up. Anyone I catch using it for that purpose will wish they were just thrown out the airlock, especially if you find yourself needing anesthesia in the remains of your tour. Sixth, no vomiting inside the airlock. Commander Steamweaver controls the air you breathe. That should be all the incentive you need to not get your crap in her filters.

The metabolism of amino acids is pretty dang specific. Breaking peptide bonds is one thing- simple chemistry. Actually utilizing the amino acids requires all sorts of enzymes, which tend to be extremely specific. Transfer RNA aminoacylation alone is probably an insurmountable barrier to building proteins with foreign amino acids. Maybe deamination to use the nitrogen and carbon skeletons is possible. I'd have to check the books. But I doubt it. The probability of aliens using a foreign aa just similar enough to ours to screw up our aa metabolism is much higher.

Without looking up details, I think what Zachary says is correct to the extent that humans are concerned. That being said, if you had a foreign stock of amino acids for whatever reason , you could probably get bacteria to use it as a food source eventually, and get some usable product out of it that way.

If history is any indication, booze of some kind will be the first consumable product made from a foreign food source. The nutritional value, of course, depends on if the microbe in question develops proteins to incorporate the new amino acids no good for you or it develops proteins to break down the new amino acids into something familiar good for you. This seems entirely likely! I have only the vaguest knowledge of booze production, only that it starts with fermentation of sugars into good old ethanol.

I have no idea what sugars are, but ethanol is pretty basic stuff. This is why, on Earth, one can change pretty much any plant into some kind of alcohol or another. I suppose the prospects for Rigellian green fuming brandy all depend on whether the local life builds its equivalent structures out of ethanol or methanol If bacteria can figure out how to eat petroleum, random amino acids should be no problem at all.

And the nice thing is, just using them as a carbon source is probably a lot easier than actually incorporating them into proteins. Developing mutant bacteria strains to utilize common organic molecules would probably be the first step in terraforming a world with alien organic life.

If you want to push it, we could engineer our own gastrointestinal symbiotes to digest alien molecules, a la termites. Accurate, except for the first part. You could synthesize a sugar that way I suppose, but it would be a weird, overgrown sugar with no friends. The connection between simple sugars and ethanol is pyruvate.

Pyruvate just so happens to be a breakdown product of many amino acids We fired four of them for being drunk on the job; Tiny had to break one stiff's arm before he would stay fired. What worried us was where did they get it? Turned out a ship fitter had rigged a heatless still, using the vacuum around us.

He was making vodka from potatoes swiped from the commissary. I hated to let him go, but he was too smart. After about a week of one gee, Private Rudkoski the cook's assistant had a still, producing some eight liters a day of 95 percent ethyl alcohol.

I didn't want to stop him — life was cheerless enough; I didn't mind as long as people showed up for duty sober — but I was damned curious both how he managed to divert the raw materials out of our sealed-tight ecology, and how the people paid for their booze.

So I used the chain of command in reverse, asking Alsever to find out. She asked Jarvil, who asked Carreras, who sat down with Orban, the cook. Turned out that Sergeant Orban had set the whole thing up, letting Rudkoski do the dirty work, and was aching to brag about it to a trustworthy person.

If I had ever taken meals with the enlisted men and women, I might have figured out that something odd was going on. But the scheme didn't extend up to officers' country. Each meal was prepared with one very sugary dessert — jelly, custard or flan — which you were free to eat if you could stand the cloying taste. But if it was still on your tray when you presented it at the recycling window, Rudkoski would give you a ten-cent chit and scrape the sugary stuff into a fermentation vat.

He had two twenty-liter vats, one "working" while the other was being filled. The ten-cent chit was at the bottom of a system that allowed you to buy a half-liter of straight ethyl with your choice of flavoring for five dollars. A squad of five people who skipped all of their desserts could buy about a liter a week, enough for a party but not enough to constitute a public health problem. We had a master distiller from Cork!

Can't imagine what they did to annoy BuRelock, but up they came; Tanith's benefit and Earth's loss. One of my predecessors set them up in the distilling business. He poured a glass of moss whiskey, a native Ceres liquor made from engineered yeast, then took off his shoes and settled onto the foam bed.

An hour later, his blood warm with drink, he heated up a bowl of real rice and fake beans— yeast and fungus could mimic anything if you had enough whiskey first—opened the door of his hole, and ate dinner looking out at the traffic gently curving by. Kate Liu returned to the table with a local beer and a glass of whiskey on her tray. Miller was glad for the distraction.

The beer was his. Light and rich and just the faintest bit bitter. An ecology based on yeasts and fermentation meant subtle brews.

Surrounded as they were by an inexhaustible supply of vacuum, space distillation was easy and cheap. To be sure that we can satisfy your requirements, let me explain to you how the Ballistic Beer process works.

We take grain from the skyfarms surrounding our station, malt, kiln, mash, and sparge it. We then copper and boil the resulting wort with the unique combinations of hops, sugars, and herbs that give each of our beers their unique flavor. When we receive your order, the selected wort is transferred to one of our Puncheon -class fermenter-tankers, along with the appropriate yeast culture, and the Puncheon is dispatched to you. The transfer orbit of the Puncheon is carefully computed to allow for the necessary weeks or months of fermentation and conditioning under thrust gravity, in order to reach you at the moment of peak flavor.

When the Puncheon reaches your station, you offload the beer by fluid transfer, either directly into your own cask tanks or for local bottling or kegging facilities and resale licenses for either of these can be leased from us.

The yeast residue remaining in the fermenter can be returned to us with the Puncheon , or retained for local use for a nominal fee. We request that you refuel the Puncheon for its return voyage as part of your payment schedule. All of our beers are naturally carbonic. As such, you should be prepared to accept the listed associated CO 2 release into your local life-support capacity. We also recommend that they be served only in non-microgravity areas and that drinkers remain in these areas for the stated effervescence interval to prevent discomfort.

We will, of course, be happy to produce any of our other beers for you given sufficient lead time. I have enclosed for your further information more details of our beers, along with full details of technical requirements and other necessities, and payment information for a variety of order sizes and schedules. On behalf of all of us here at the Ballistic Brewery, we hope to be able to offer you a drink soon!

So we have an Agreement. We agree to put all the, um, unofficial plumbing on the master plans and hook it into the control systems, and the adminisphere agrees not to bug us about it unless it causes a genuine issue. When I was a kid, I used to stand out at the edge of Crashlanding Port watching the ships come in. I'd watch the mob of passengers leave the lock and move in a great clump toward customs, and I'd wonder why they seemed to have trouble navigating.

A majority of the starborn would always walk in weaving lines, swaying and blinking teary eyes against the sun. I used to think it was because they came from different worlds with different gravities and different atmospheres beneath differently colored suns. There are no windows in a passenger spacecraft. If there were, half the passengers would go insane; it takes an unusual mentality to watch the blind-spot appearance of hyperspace and still keep one's marbles.

For passengers there is nothing to watch and nothing to do, and if you don't like reading sixteen hours a day, then you drink. It's best to drink in company. You get less lushed, knowing you have to keep up your side of a conversation. The ship's doc has cured more hangovers than every other operation combined, right down to manicures and haircuts.

And then there are mental problems. The dread spectre of space madness. Obviously there are problems with confining too many astronauts in a too-small habitat module for prolonged periods of time with not enough sleep and practically no privacy.

Add pressure from ground control to work the astronauts to death coupled with boredom and you have a real recipe for blood floating all over the module. At least in an Arctic research station a researcher close to snapping can step outside for a breath of fresh air. Not so the astronaut. Henry in his autobiographical book about the Salyut 6 mission: Human nature won't stand it.

This was sort of hinted at by the Russian Sphinx experiment. This enclosed six crewmembers in a simulated space station for six months. About two months into the experiment there was a bloody fist-fight between two of the Russian crewmembers. Shortly thereafter the Canadian female crewmember Dr. Judith Lapierre was dragged off camera by the Russian commander and forcibly french-kissed despite her vigorous protests. In two separate incidents.

And then there is the Break-Off effect. This was first reported before the dawn of space travel, by high altitude military airplane pilots. It was a type of psychological dissociative anomaly, a feeling of detachment. Most pilots felt peaceful, a few euphoric, and about a third were panic-stricken. It was thought this would also happen with astronauts. But in the 's when cosmonauts and astronauts actually started flying the problem seemed to disappear.

It wasn't until recently that it became clear the Break-Off effect did not disappear in astronauts. What disappeared was the astronauts reporting it. Astronauts are in constant terror of being grounded, so they developed a "lie to fly" culture. The last thing they are going to do is report to the flight surgeons some scary mental breakdown that will get them grounded faster than a teenage girl staying out five hours past her curfew.

During the Apollo missions, some astronauts reported how the vision of Earth as the big blue marble caused a sudden cognitive shift in awareness.

They suddenly saw Earth as a fragile ball of life where national boundaries became unimportant. A writer named Frank White coined the term The Overview Effect , and wrote a popular book on the topic in You can find some quotes about the effect here. And there are some psychologists who suspect that the Break-Off Effect and the Overview Effect are one and the same. Speculation about revolutionary developments is not, however, immediately relevant to a most pressing question about human adaptation to space: How can groups of people live and work together without psychological impairment or the breakdown of social order in the space stations, lunar bases, and Mars expeditions now being planned?

Psychological and social problems in space living constitute, as both Soviet and American space veterans attest Bluth , Carr , major barriers to be overcome in the humanization of space. Coping with isolation from Earth, family, and friends and with the cramped confines of a space module or station has been enough of a challenge for carefully selected and highly trained spacefarers of the U. How will all these different kinds of people get along in the space stations of the next decade and the lunar bases and martian outposts which are to follow?

What measures can be taken which would reduce stress and make it easier for heterogeneous groups of people to work efficiently and safely and to live together amicably for months or even years in these space habitats? Among social scientists it has been primarily the psychologists Helmreich , with a few jurists, sociologists, and political scientists joining in, who have tried to address these problems of space living. However, inasmuch as among the diverse lot of people who call themselves anthropologists there are those who are intensely interested in interpersonal relations and small group behavior, it should not be surprising that anthropologists might also be attracted to work in this field.

Interestingly, some recent recruits come from maritime anthropology, where they have worked on the dynamics of small-boat fishing crews. Here I wish to suggest two specific areas in which this cultural perspective of anthropology could be useful: Cultural factors should not, however, be viewed solely in terms of impediments to successful space living, for they may also constitute valuable human resources to be tapped in adapting to space.

As an example, consider interpersonal problems in a space habitat. In small space habitats, where people cannot escape from one another but must work out ways of interacting peacefully and productively, adversarial proceedings would irritate an already sensitive social field.

And how could the winners and losers of bitter courtroom battles live and work with each other afterwards? One obvious suggestion is that systems which are designed to detect interpersonal problems early and head them off through mediation should be considered for space living. Glazer, for example, calls for a new kind of legal specialist—not an adversarial advocate, but someone who settles disputes on behalf of the interests of all spacefarers on a mission.

He draws his model from the Tabula de Amalfa, the maritime code of the once powerful Mediterranean naval power of Amalfi. In addition to looking to this and perhaps other maritime analogs, it is tempting to suggest that, with an eye to the more distant future of large space settlements, we also examine major contemporary societies in which harmony and cooperation is stressed.

The example of Japan, with its low crime rate and relative paucity of lawyers, comes to mind—although its utility as a model for international efforts may be limited in that Japan is such an ethnically homogeneous society. Alice came back about All our beautiful logic, and no mucking moon. Waring was a working city. She said…well, I'm not sure she wasn't right. She did not drop sagging onto the bed. Joe nurse action doll; and a s-era Marketeer golf cart in poor condition.

Irritated over the poor performance of the night shift, Rick assigns Corey to temporarily work the night shift to retrain the employees, much to Corey's displeasure. Roosevelt , sent to the seller's grandfather. Meredith Vieira makes a cameo appearance in a dream sequence experienced by Chumlee. Items appraised include a pair of ornate, hand-etched parade saddles; a year-old Steiff teddy bear ; an 18th-century bronze miniature cannon, purchased at a garage sale, that was used for instruction in the use of its larger counterparts; a pair of Schwinn Phantom bicycles from the s; and a collection of 58 boxes, each containing about 60 video tapes of various TV shows and movies plus audio cassettes, that belonged to Sammy Davis, Jr.

Items appraised include a collection of million-year-old Mazon Creek fossils of spiders and ferns; a blackjack table from the Stardust Casino ; a pair of metal Coca-Cola signs from the s; and a custom Down and Dirty motorcycle frame.

Items appraised include a letter by Winston Churchill to U. Major General Mark Clark; a radio controlled , gas-powered toy Hummer that Chumlee wants to repair; an antique barber pole made between the late 19th century and the early 20th century made of cast iron and blown stained glass; a Frigidaire refrigerator; and a Catholic relic from Saint Elizabeth Seton with documentation in Latin.

Items appraised include a silk Abraham Lincoln campaign ribbon from the U. Items appraised include a s, battery-operated bacon-cooking pig chef toy made by Yonezawa; a collection of s Atlanta Braves championship and World Series rings ; a Cadillac Fleetwood limousine; a pair of antique pistol lighters; and a pair of hand-stitched political dolls depicting Abraham Lincoln and a slave, which were made to be burned in effigy by pre- Civil War , pro-slavery advocates.

Items appraised include a pair of 19th-century pistols; a collection of items that belonged to Wyatt Earp , as well as some photos of Earp and Bat Masterson ; a collection of fishing lures; an antique television; a Schlitz beer lamp; and a gold medal from the Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Items appraised include handcuffs and leg shackles that belonged to Harry Houdini ; a St. Louis Rams Vince Lombardi Trophy from the Super Bowl ; a collection of s comic buttons from Pep Cereal ; a s Slingerland jazz drum set; and a Prohibition -era cocktail shaker.

Items appraised include a s child's pedal car ; a chessboard made with wood from the Titanic ; a Superman record player; a poem handwritten by Jimi Hendrix ; and a sealed can of "Can Can" brand canned pearls that Rick wishes to open in order to inspect the contents. Items appraised include a 17th-century musketoon ; a Lotus Europa sports car; a case file from the Lindbergh baby kidnapping that belonged to Leon Hoage; a private investigator hired by Charles Lindbergh ; and a mids Lasonic boom box.

Items appraised include a s Bendix A7 World War II aircraft octant ; a Nintendo Virtual Boy video game console; an s doctor's buggy whose seller purchased it on the Internet; two life-sized Star Wars figures of Jar Jar Binks and Darth Maul ; and a Stradivarius violin whose seller says was found in a cedar chest in his newly-purchased house, but which Rick thinks is a copy.

Items appraised include a book published in by Georgius Agricola that was once owned by Isaac Newton ; an Army jacket from the Spanish—American War whose seller claims belonged to his grandfather much to the Harrisons' skepticism ; and a year-old, piece collection of John Wayne memorabilia.

After buying the Newton book, Rick notices some notes written in it that may be Newton's actual handwriting. Items appraised include a collection of World War II aviator gear, including a P flight jacket, hat and survival kit; a year-old canister of National Biscuit Company fallout shelter survival crackers; a child's half-scale flintlock musket dated to the s—s; a collection of Sahara Casino baccarat chips; and a collection of the first year of issues of Sports Illustrated.

Items appraised include a first Acts of Congress book signed by James Smith that was discovered in an old house; a Breitling emergency watch; an A-series Gibson mandolin Rick thinks might have been made by Lloyd Loar ; a Airstream trailer; and a RB Robotics 5X home robot that was purchased at a flea market. Items appraised include an antique Pepsi cooler circa —50 that needs full restoration; a functional antique Mutoscope arcade claw machine ; a political textile sporting the likeness of someone Rick thinks might be William Henry Harrison , but who turns out to be Gilbert du Motier, marquis de Lafayette ; a sealed box of s pre-embargo Cuban cigars found by the seller in his father's old war chest; and a picture book from the Summer Olympics , and one of the gold medallions that was given to German soldiers at the time.

When the shop's computer system crashes, the Old Man becomes irate with Corey's inability to hand-write receipts. Items appraised include an U. Martin Luther King, Jr. Items appraised include a writing desk that incorporates a gun, which appears to be from the s—s; a replica of the Batmobile from the Batman film; an antique American warship's passport document featuring an Edward Savage engraving, and signed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison ; and a collection of signed memorabilia of pool champion Willie Mosconi.

Items appraised include a collection of 24 s rock concert posters for Buffalo Springfield , the Grateful Dead and the Rolling Stones ; an optometrist's collection of hand-blown glass prosthetic eyeballs dating from the s — ; a Evel Knievel pinball machine that turns out to be worth much less than what Corey paid for it; and an autographed photo of Babe Ruth. Items appraised include a copy of the first issue of Rolling Stone magazine; a pair of and gold-plated pants pendants awarded to Ohio State football players , the latter of which belonged to Doug Worthington ; a pair of Picasso lithographs; a REO Flying Cloud hot rod with bullet-proof glass; and a s coin-operated, computerized breathalyzer formerly used in a California bar.

Items appraised include an officer's commission from the Revolutionary War; a miniature Model T Ford with a working motor; and a one-man midget submarine , whose purchase by Rick surprises both the Old Man and Corey. Items appraised include the guidance system to a Cold War —era AIM-9 Sidewinder missile ; an original Playboy bunny outfit; a Buick Regal that Chumlee takes an odd liking to; an s—s carpenter's tool chest; and a Rubik's Cube sealed in its original package.

Items appraised include a Confederate Civil War Bowie knife known as an "Arkansas Toothpick"; a Honda Z ; a professionally restored, Rolex watch previously owned by Bernie Madoff ; a boxing gym bell signed by Sonny Liston in ; and a Team Bowling Alley arcade game.

Items appraised include a chair from the U. To address the Old Man's habit of falling asleep within view of the showroom floor, Rick has a new office built for him.

Items appraised include a naval blunderbuss from the 17th century, a GMC motor home sponsored by Coca-Cola; a San Francisco 49ers cheerleader's Super Bowl ring; a photo of The Who signed by three of that band's members; and a Columbia University speed reading machine course.

Items appraised include a signed George S. Patton photo album, whose seller is the grandson of the lieutenant assigned to photograph Patton for three months; an antique sterling silver travel kit; a pair of jockey boots autographed by Willie Shoemaker; a large collection of decanters ; and a Kevlar bulletproof vest with two trauma plates. Items appraised include a piece of the heat shield from the Apollo 13 spacecraft; a Husqvarna CR dirt bike whose restoration may prove to be a problem for Corey; a World War II Japanese non-commissioned officer 's sword; Todd McFarlane 's original artwork for page 25 of The Amazing Spider-Man June ; and a Curta calculator from the s or s.

Items appraised include an early s Colt. Items appraised include an original Harry Houdini straitjacket authenticated to have been used by him in a January 1, performance; [2] a loudspeaker from Ebbets Field in Brooklyn ; a letter written and signed by Helen Keller ; and a Carl Zeiss telescope from the late 19th century.

Items appraised include a John Wilkes Booth Wanted poster printed on April 20, ; a s arcade penny scale; an Air Force fighter pilot's G-suit and helmet worn by the seller's brother-in-law when he flew an F during the Gulf War ; and a s Chicago police badge.

Rick assigns Chumlee to the night shift to fill in for someone who is sick. Items appraised include a quick-draw gun holster and blank -firing gun used on the TV series Gunsmoke in and ; a s Steelcraft zeppelin pull toy; a World War I 5th Marine Regiment helmet; and an antique clock with four Morgan silver dollars and two Peace Dollars embedded in it. Rick hires a personal trainer and insists that he, Corey, the Old Man and Chumlee begin exercising every morning. Items appraised include the document signed by John Hancock with which he was inducted as a captain in the American militia ; a framed, limited print photo of Jimi Hendrix by Gered Mankowitz that Corey wants to buy as a Father's Day gift for Rick; a steel Rickenbacker frying pan guitar; and a s Schwinn Sting-Ray Runabout that's been outfitted with a motor that Corey says needs to be removed in order for it to be sold as a collectible.

The conclusion of a three-part crossover episode that began on American Pickers and continued on American Restoration. Rick asks Mike Wolfe and Frank Fritz to find a Chevrolet for his father's 70th birthday, and then meets with Rick Dale and Danny Koker to have it restored in time for the party. Items appraised include a 19th-century shotgun disguised as a cane; a Indian motorcycle that belonged to Steve McQueen ; and a book printed by Benjamin Franklin.

Items appraised include a chest filled with puppets and other memorabilia belonging to Buffalo Ben, who may have been a member of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show ; a phone booth from the s or s whose phone still functions; a collection of three vintage railroad lamps; and an unsigned copy of Ronald Reagan 's high school yearbook and a signed letter that belonged to the seller's grandfather, who graduated with Reagan.

Items appraised include a military lighter, I. Items appraised include a piece of marble from Abraham Lincoln 's tomb ; a Schuco Charlie Chaplin wind-up doll; a Chevrolet Impala; an antique African sword from the Congo ; and a rare copy of a limited edition of The Authorized Al , a biography of "Weird Al" Yankovic. Items appraised include a collection of letters and pilot licenses signed by Orville Wright ; a s Jennings Bronze Chief nickel slot machine ; and a Model percussion musket from West Point Military Academy.

Items appraised include an earlyth-century W. Child percussion dueling pistol; a hat once owned by Ronnie Van Zant of Lynyrd Skynyrd , who gave it to the seller in ; a first edition copy of David Copperfield ; a Porsche Carrera engine from a junkyard; and a vintage rotary dial pay phone that's been converted for home use. Items appraised include Robert E.

Lee 's silver spoon and Ulysses S. Grant 's meerschaum pipe, which are brought in by the same seller; four volumes of Don Quixote ; a vintage Metrotech metal detector ; a U. Vietnam War -era practice bomb; and one of Secretariat 's horseshoes. Items appraised include an s Knock percussion pistol; a Glastron Seaflight boat; a copy of Dracula signed by Bram Stoker that was purchased at a charity auction; a Penn State University Orange Bowl championship ring; and a collection of antique billiard items, including ivory billiard balls.

Items appraised include a carriage strongbox; a pirate ship parade float that Chumlee investigates; a collection of 17 one ounce silver art bars from the early s; a World War II bomber jacket and flight mission logs that belonged to the seller's father, a B pilot; and two Native American Kachina figurines made of sterling silver and turquoise.

Items appraised include a golf putter owned by Dean Martin ; a Indian motorcycle; a homemade suit of armor; a tin Louis Armstrong toy; and a Bugs Bunny 50th anniversary poster signed by Mel Blanc and Friz Freleng. Items appraised include a Civil War drum; a photographer's printing table; a Royal Riders motorcycle club uniform; and a sixpence coin.

Antwaun, in preparation to take a few days off, attempts to train Chumlee on how to work the door in his absence. The Old Man challenges the others to a game of poker. Items appraised in this Halloween-themed episode include a 19th-century vampire-killing kit; a collection equipment used in paranormal investigations that includes several tape recorders, a full spectrum camera and a laser grid, whose sellers offer to use to search for paranormal activity around the shop; a s keypunch machine whose seller was a punchcard accounting instructor in the early s; and a Jabba the Hutt Play-Doh set.

Items appraised include an Aero L Albatros Czechoslovak fighter jet; a baseball glove signed by Babe Ruth and a bat signed by Ruth and Christy Mathewson ; a set of mid-to-lateth-century George Ligowsky glass and clay target balls; and a s Hanovia tanning lamp. Rick decides to implement a new rule forbidding staff from keeping items purchased for the shop, but Corey and the Old Man are skeptical of Rick's own commitment to this idea. Items appraised include a torch from the Summer Olympics , brought in by the man who ran with it when he was 17; an earlyth-century Austrian miniature pinfire pistol ; a Oldsmobile L four-door sedan with suicide doors; and a Mario statue.

Items appraised include a five-speed, custom sand rail , which was awarded to the seller in her divorce; a s Levi's jacket; a collection of unpublished photos of Jimi Hendrix presented by Ron Raffaelli , the Hendrix photographer who took them and kept them in his archives for 40 years; and a Polaris Razor XP dune buggy.

Rick and Corey take the two purchased off-road vehicles to the desert to see which one of them made the better deal. Items appraised include a prop policeman's badge from the TV show Dragnet ; s steel mandolin; a post-Civil War era Grand Army of the Republic parade cannon ; and a signed Abraham Lincoln photograph.

Items appraised include a collection of Foreign Broadcast Information Service [nb 2] daily impact reports from to early ; a World War II-era handheld Japanese air raid siren ; and a limited edition photograph of Albert Einstein by Philippe Halsman that appeared on the cover of Time magazine.

Items appraised include a collection of items that belonged to former Attorney General J. Items appraised include a fake Wells Fargo strongbox with a fake ball-and-chain whose seller says is from Folsom Prison c. With business picking up during the night shift , Rick decides to hire a new night employee to help Charles, who is adept at dealing with jewelery, but not with antiques.

Items appraised include a Springfield, Illinois banker's time lock ; an Springfield Armory single-shot rope gun; a first edition copy of Henry David Thoreau 's Walden ; an early s optometry kit that belonged to the seller's great-grandfather; a Buzz Aldrin G.

Joe doll found at a swap meet. Also, Corey and Chumlee conduct interviews in order to select the shop's new night shift broker. Items appraised include a Charles Lindbergh aviation doll; a s heavy porcelain over cast iron electric hand dryer ; a Piccadilly Circus roulette slot machine from the s or s; a s Brother word processor; a poster for a vaudeville act; and a harmonica purportedly played by Steven Tyler of Aerosmith.

Items appraised include a backpacker Martin guitar signed by Crosby, Stills and Nash that was won by the seller in a trivia contest; a customized Phat Cycles Fuller chopper; a collection of vintage cigar box labels, some of which featured lithographic images of U.

Presidents; and a pair of World War II bomb fins. Also, Chumlee begins training Olivia, the new night shift employee. Items appraised include an Whitney percussion musket converted from a flintlock; a collection of five s RuddSpeed whiskey decanters modeled after the grilles of automobiles including Bentley , Bugatti , Mercedes and Rolls-Royce ; a golf ball once used by Lyndon B.

Johnson , which struck the father of the seller who brings it in; a World Series Chicago Cubs press pin; and a copy of Nicolas Sanson 's map of France. Items appraised include a poster for Jimi Hendrix 's second-to-last concert; a collection of inflatable paintball bunkers; a rare autographed Paul Newman racing suit; an electronic Louis Marx and Company "Mot-O-Run" tin toy that was found in a dumpster; and a photo signed by Mickey Mantle , Willie Mays and Harmon Killebrew.

Also, Rick and the Old Man form a bet on which of their favored items is worth more. Items appraised include a letter been flown by Charles Lindbergh on the Spirit of St. Louis ; a collection of 14 s minibikes , one of which is a Honda Z50 ; a vintage horse race gambling game; an Fusee pocketwatch made in London; and a —20 Spalding "Black Betsy" baseball bat modeled after the one used by Shoeless Joe Jackson. Garfield prior to his presidency to a resident of the same home town as the seller; and a s decade life-size toy bear made by the Steiff Company , the originator of the teddy bear; packets of NASA tomato seeds flown by the Space Shuttle Challenger to the Long Duration Exposure Facility in orbit in and returned to earth in on the Space Shuttle Columbia.

Items appraised include three life-size Pinocchio marionettes handcrafted by Bob Baker Marionettes ; a collection of issues of Yank magazine; an earlyth-century C. Items appraised include a collection of 11 original tintype photographs of what the seller says is the outlaw Jesse James and his gang; a s Model Leslie organ speaker ; a 19th-century spoon bit drill set; and a s Boy Scouts of America first aid kit. Items appraised include a signed letter from Knute Rockne to the seller's grandfather, dated March 13, , 18 days before Rockne died; a collection of five antique Cracker Jack tin toys ; an antique heirloom ring that belonged to mobster Lucky Luciano , brought in buy the son of a woman who ran errands for the mob; a solid wood, 19th-century dentist's pole ; and a De Luxe scintillator.

Items appraised include copies of Harry S. Truman 's two-volume memoir and his book, Mr. Items appraised include a Star Trek Klingon bat'leth sword brought in by the same seller who presented the Star Trek memorabilia collection in "Cannons and Klingons"; an R.

Items appraised include Jackie Gleason 's custom-ordered, Lincoln Continental limousine; a Mount Rushmore commemorative plaque made of pure silver, which the Old Man wishes to melt down for fast money, but which Rick thinks will sell for more intact; a Super Bowl I football signed by the victorious Green Bay Packers , including Vince Lombardi ; and a s toy Disneyland Monorail set.

Items appraised include a collection of authenticated and graded notes of — paper money from the Republic of Texas and the Government of Texas ; an Winchester repeating rifle that was passed down through four generations of the seller's family; a pair of movie poster printing plates for the film The Outlaw ; and a Discovery Zone "Z-BOP" robot.

Also, the men compete in a rifle-shooting competition. Military during World War II; a rare, three-trigger Stevens shotgun ; a Mercedes-Benz that's been customized to include features such as inch wheels; and an Abraham Lincoln campaign token from the Presidential election , which is brought in during the night shift, and requires Olivia to contact Rick.

Items appraised include a titanium nosepiece from an Lockheed SR Blackbird jet, brought in by the son of an engineer who worked on the vehicle, and signed by pilots Bill Flanagan and Robert Gilliland; a solid bronze 16th century cannon; a large pair of vintage Levi's jeans ; a homemade Stand Up and Ride motor scooter ; and a pair of vintage Snoopy and Red Baron music boxes.

Items appraised include an s karat gold Tiffany's pocket watch; a collection of 82 first series Garbage Pail Kids trading cards from ; a s Mercedes Unimog military truck; and a sign that hung on the Berlin Wall. Racecar driver Matt Kenseth has a cameo. Items appraised include a piece of stained glass art depicting dogs playing poker with a joker from a cigar shop; an early 19th-century manuscript of John Chrysostom 's writings handwritten in Russian Church Slavonic ; one hundred pounds of silver in the form of bars and coins that Rick needs to test before making an offer on; and a collection of props from the film Batman Forever , including a batarang and one of the pop-up riddles used by the Riddler.

Navy admiral's telephone that the Old Man wants restored for his desk, much to the irritation of Rick, who wants it resold. Items appraised include four original paintings by Andy Warhol ; a World War II aerial bomber camera, which is accompanied by a photo of it mounted inside a bomber; a pair of carat gold sunglasses that Chumlee purchases during the night shift to resell, but which Rick thinks should better be melted down; and a baseball rule book and baseball signed by seven players, including Hall of Famers Red Faber and Ray Schalk and two members of the Chicago Black Sox.

Items appraised include a medal commemorating the sinking of the RMS Lusitania , found by the seller's mother about 20 years previously; an antique voltmeter ; an autographed copy of Charles Lindbergh's autobiography, We , which Chumlee buys without authenticating the signature, much to Rick's anger; and a century Dutch balance scale.

He spit tobacco juice enough to drown a jackrabbit. He got into a chair and resined his old, three stringed fiddle and said "Salute your pardners-everybody swing. The round and square dances are the same. The Church of God forbids. The greatest and the most spiritual churches forbid it, and are against it. The Methodist church was raised up for the very purpose of counteracting the dance in the church. God called Wesley to purify the Episcopal church and that movement which crystallized in the Methodist church was the rebuke which God gave.

From that day until this the Church has hurled sermons against these things until it is a generally accepted truism that men and Women that do not preach against these things are too big cowards to pose as spiritual leaders, or they are too ignorant to teach God's people. I know there are some Churches that tolerate it - they don't encourage it -and any Church that encourages it is too low down to deserve the name.

Listen, I will take the oldest church in Christendom - the Roman Catholic. Do you think that you can be a Catholic and do that? I will give you a quotation from a letter from the bishops and the archbishops in plenary council. Are you here, Episcopalians? If it were only evangelistic, with its money and power and social position, there is not a Church in the world that could do more good than the Episcopal. Bishop Hopkins, of Vermont, said: I have never known a Baptist or Congregational preacher worth a snap of the finger who didn't cry out against the dance.

That was on their own initiative, too. You tell us that young people must sow their wild oats. Oh, away with such spiritual rot. You can't sow sin and reap virtue.

If there were nothing but card players and dancers in the Church, it would stink and rot out. The lowest down rascal in any community is a dancing Methodist. Sunday, the Church is too strict with us. The bars are so low down now that any old bog can come and root and crawl in.

Any old lobster with two or three suits of clothes and a bank account can break into most any Church. I tell you that the Church loves her young people and is indulgent with them and hopes that they will increase in common sense as they grow in years. The dancing Christian never was a soul winner. The dance is simply a hugging match set to music. The dance is a sexual love feast. This crusade against the dance is for everybody, not merely for the preacher or the old man or woman who couldn't dance if they wanted to, but for everybody interested in morals, whether in the Church or out of the Church.

I am preaching a sermon that Jew or Gentile, Catholic or Protestant, infidel or Christian, if he wants better morals, can stand on my side. I say that it is unspiritual.

Many a pastor is heartbroken and is sighing for new fields because of the Godless mob in the Church. I had rather have twelve women filled with the Holy Ghost than a hundred theater-gadders, wine-guzzlers and frivolous dancers. What under God's Heaven do you amount to? The Church is honeycombed with the rottenness of society. Somebody has got to come out and run the risk of incurring your displeasure.

Say, if God Almighty gives you a rap on the back of the head and shakes the shroud over your old carcass, and telephones for the undertaker to come and measure you for your coffin, you will begin to whine and sniffle and cry to God, like a sick cat. Every good man and woman carries in his or her breast passions the same as bad men and women carry, and thus your breast becomes a tinder box and you ought to be careful where you go and what you do lest you ignite it and there be an explosion and wreck of your purity and manhood and womanhood.

My wife and I have been at the bedside of a girl who was dying in a house of ill fame. She said the reason of her downfall had been the dance, which she began when 15 years old. She used to attend Sunday school. When we asked her if she had any message for the girls, she cried, "Tell the girls and warn them to let the dance alone. I say it is immoral. A society woman said that in the ballroom men took liberties with her that they would not dare take any place else or under any other circumstances.

Perhaps the parties which you have attended have been free from immoral tendencies which have characterized others. Does not the swinging of the partners in the square dance bring the bodies of the partners into position that would not be tolerated in decent society or anywhere else, or under any other circumstances? Would it not give a Scriptural ground for divorce?

Ma and I stopped in to look at a ball at an inauguration ceremony. Well, I will be horn-swaggled if I didn't see a woman there dancing with all the men, and she wore the collar of her gown around her waist. She had a little corset on - oh, I can't describe it. Supposing that you go to a dance tonight and then tomorrow you go around to some man's house when he is not there, that you might effectively impress upon his wife the dance and its necessary attendants and requisites.

You intend to give instruction, and you go in perfect innocence. You assume the same position and attitude with your arms about her that you would take on the ballroom floor. The husband comes in the back door and sees you there with your arms about his wife, and bang! You could not find a jury of married men on God's earth that would convict him.

Just one vote - and it would be: Is not that true about the position? Any man knows it is. It does not do any harm to keep away and it may ruin your daughter to let her go. Do you go with your wife to the dance? You don't dance, and she is a fiend. You stand there, and watch man after man as he claims her hand and puts his name on her list. Perhaps that fellow was her lover and you won her hand -and you stand there and watch your wife folded in his long, voluptuous, sensual embrace, their bodies swaying one against the other, their limbs twining and entwining, her head resting on his breast, they breathe the vitiated air beneath the glittering candelabra, and the spell of the music, and you stand there and tell me that there is no harm in it!

You're too low down for me. I want to see the color of some buck's hair that can dance with my wife! I'm going to monopolize that hugging myself. Do you know that three fourths of all the girls who are ruined owe their downfall to that very thing.

You let a young man whose character would make a black mark on a piece of tar paper, who goes down the line every other night, hug and dance with your daughter, and see what happens. They are dancing the tango, the rottenest, most putrid, stinkingest dance that ever wriggled out of the pot of perdition - that's what the tango is.

Are you a father? Are you a brother? Do you accompany your daughter or your sister to the ballroom and see young fellows come up to her - lecherous young bucks - asking the hand of your daughter or your sister for a dance - young bucks that you know live in sin, young fellows whose names are as common upon the lips of the prostitute as upon the lips of your daughter?

Two or three nights in company with her at some ball or theater party, and two or three nights in the arms of some prostitute. You stand there and see young fellows come up and walk with your daughter and tell me that there is no harm in it, you are too low down for me. Are you a mother? And do you chaperone your daughter and groom her, and you shove her in front of every marriageable buck, and you accompany her to the ballroom and you stand there and look at her with your head cocked on one side, and see a young fellow come up and wrap his arms around your daughter, and tell me that there is no harm in it?

You must be made of basswood or putty or marble. The positions have changed since you danced. I read the other day a report that said: We're going some nowadays. I can understand why some of the young people want to dance, but what some of you old fellows, who have to grease your joints before going on the floor, see in it, I don't know. I read the other day that sitting out a waltz is going to be fashionable from now on.

The only difference is that you will sit it out instead of dance it. A young man and a girl will sit on a sofa, and he will put his arm about her, her left hand in his, and she rests her head upon his bosom, and all that they have to do is just to sit there and "hug.

I have always considered it a nuisance to gallop a mile just to get a hug or two. Most men don't care a rap for the dance; it is the hug that they are after.

That'll give your old rheumatic and gout masters a chance. A fellow has got to get powerfully old and decrepit when he doesn't enjoy a hug, I'll tell you that.

I want to tell you I don't believe that there are many people who can go on the ballroom floor and dance with a pretty girl hugged to his breast and look upon her charms under the influence of fascinating music, and then go out with prayer meeting feelings. I will bet you, Sir, if men who dance would tell the truth, ninety out of one hundred will say: I don't believe the saloons will do as much to damn the morals of young people as the dancing school.

That is my position. I don't care anything about yours.

Whisky scozzese