Audie Murphy honors and awards
Purple Heart with two bronze oak leaf clusters three awards. On Sunday they had made some preliminary runs for the flying mile and kilometer runs and were planning to make the official runs Monday morning, when Petrali had the clocks set up. Name changed to Business Express. Retrieved June 19, Midwest Express Airlines
He got the job by being there and doing it. Bill came out to generate publicity for Union Oil in conjunction with the run. Harry was running Goodyear tires, but Goodyear had not sent a tire engineer. The tires had been mounted and balanced in Charlotte before they left. They were basically a Talladega tire. It was around 8: I checked in at the motel, which was very basic as I recall, and told Harry I was there.
They had gotten in on Friday or Saturday and had set up their operation on the salt. The two trucks were parked about twenty feet apart and a canvas cover was stretched between them, as it was needed for shade. The race car and the two trucks stayed on the salt and at least one crew member stayed out there to watch them at night. On Sunday they had made some preliminary runs for the flying mile and kilometer runs and were planning to make the official runs Monday morning, when Petrali had the clocks set up.
By the time I got there the car was ready to run. Bobby took the car to the end of the available straightaway and headed north. We heard the car before we saw it. It sounded great, but it didn't look very fast with nothing to judge it against.
After Bobby stopped the crew went down to check over the car. I don't think that they even changed tires. FIA rules required that the return run be made in less than 60 minutes after the first run.
Bobby came back much sooner than that. After a few minutes Joe Petrali came out of his timing trailer with the numbers: These numbers were arrived at by averaging the times in each direction. The mile and kilometer records are the only ones that the FIA recognizes with flying starts. All others are standing start. Records are recognized for 0. There are also records for 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours, standing start.
For records over ten miles a closed course must be used, and since this type of track runs in all directions, two-way runs are not required. Where the record distance does not come at the end of a lap, the time is interpolated from the time for that lap. For the flying mile and kilometer one end of both time traps is at the same point with the other end one kilometer or one mile away. The layout of the salt for both straightaway and distance runs depends on the condition of the salt that particular year.
In the salt was not very good. The pumping by the chemical company was making the salt worse and worse every year. Fortunately, in the succeeding 30 years, the Bureau of Land Management has changed the brine pumping and in most years the salt is much better now than it was then. This is particularly important for wheel driven land speed record cars.
The Summer's Brothers Goldenrod car with four Hemi engines, which held the wheel driven speed record for 30 years, set the speed record at about MPH in with about twelve miles of straightaway 5. Based on calculations, the car would have reached MPH if it had a sixteen mile straight and about MPH with a 24 mile straightaway.
In we had about a twelve mile straight. For the Dodge Daytona this was quite adequate. It could probably not have gone much over MPH on a much longer straightaway. As I already mentioned, for distance runs they use a circle at Bonneville, typically of ten mile circumference 16, foot diameter, 3. In very good years they have had eleven and twelve mile circles. In they could not lay out a ten mile circle and keep it all in solid salt. They had to make a ten mile oval.
The turns had a radius of one mile and the straightaways measured 1. I don't think that we saw him until evening. Work was then started on marking the ten mile oval. The Utah State Highway Department did the actual layout, marking and grading of the course. The straightaway is marked with a black line down the center to guide the driver and at the timing lights there are markers to keep the driver between the light source and the photo electric cell.
The oval is marked by wood lath strips put into holes drilled in the salt. Monday afternoon I spent several hours with the highway crew installing these markers for the oval. The actual survey work had been done previously since there were markers nailed into the salt every feet marking the inside of the oval course.
I don't know when they were put out or by who. To put the wood lath pieces into the salt, a hole was drilled with a heavy duty electric drill. The hole was one and a half to two inches in diameter and about six inches deep. The lath was stuffed in the hole and within an hour the salt had flowed in and filled the hole, securing the lath in place. A highway department truck with a generator went along with us. There were three of us working on this and we could do about one marker a minute or so.
Working out these numbers, it would have taken almost nine hours to do the whole track. I think that the parts of the oval that were not near the straightaway had been done before I got there. The salt is a good hard surface, but it is soft enough that it was easy to drill into. As the salt dries out from the winter rains it forms a completely flat surface. As it continues to dry it shrinks, cracks develop on the surface and soft salt is squeezed out from underneath. They would run a road grader over the track surface to smooth out these soft salt ridges and make a smoother track surface.
The salt was four to six inches thick in the good areas and got down to less than an inch near the edges. There was mud under the salt. Meanwhile the car was being checked over and was gotten ready for the mile standing start record run. Late Monday afternoon Harry Hyde took the car out to see how it was running. I went along, holding onto the roll cage. Harry got the car up to about MPH from the tach reading. This I think is the fastest I have ever ridden in a race car, but it didn't even seem like it was moving fast.
I didn't even have to hold on tight. Harry was happy with the car, so we parked it for the night and went back to Wendover. There are actually two towns of Wendover side by side, one in Utah and one in Nevada. The major difference is that there were a couple of casinos in Nevada. We were staying in Utah, but we went over to one of the casinos in Nevada for dinner and a bit of gambling.
On Tuesday we started running the car on the ten mile oval. At first Bobby was worried about running on the oval at these speeds and what would happen if he lost the car. Harry and I pointed out to him that this was the safest place in the world to spin out, since he could spin for several miles and not hit anything. The coefficient of friction of the salt was so low that the tires couldn't get enough of a bite while spinning to trip the car and turn it over.
Bobby was wary of the whole thing most of the day Tuesday, until he did overdo it going into turn three on the oval. The rear end got away from him and he did a couple of revolutions and ended up about a half mile outside of the course. He had wiped out seven or eight of the lath markers and had put a small dent in the nose cone.
The laths were replaced and after that Bobby really got with the program and didn't let the track worry him. Looking at it from today's point of view, I don't know what would have happened if a winged car got backwards at Bonneville or on a regular race track.
The air flowing in the reverse direction over the wing would develop quite a bit of lift and might be able to start one of the tumbling type of wrecks that happened at higher speed NASCAR tracks before they developed the roof flaps. Of course the race cars were almost lbs heavier and therefore needed lbs more lift to loose contact with the ground. As Frank Moriarty says in his wonderful book "Supercars", I rode with Bobby for three or four laps while we were setting up the suspension.
George Wallace of the Chrysler Special Vehicles Group had a history of going along for observation rides during Charger Daytona and SuperBird testing, so it shouldn't have been a surprise that he joined Isaac in the cockpit as the number 71 car was being set up.
To Bill Brodrick, however, it was a big surprise. I'll never forget this because he got in the damn car and he rode with Isaac! He had his feet up, wrapped around the bars -- they had instruments in the car and he wanted to check those instruments. He hung on and they took off and I said, 'That man is out of his mind! Then George got out and he was like, 'Oh well. The low-key Wallace has particularly vivid memories of preparations to run on the ten-mile Bonneville course.
I rode with Bobby while we were setting up the car a little, and he was probably the ideal driver because he was a dirt tracker who wasn't afraid to go fast. He was basically driving it like a huge dirt track.
He'd throw it into the turn and from the inside it felt like it was going out about 30 percent. The tail end would hang out, but he would drive it just like you would on a dirt track. At first I was a little anxious about it, because we had to point out to him that if you lose the car you could spin for five miles. I actually said that it felt like the tail was hanging out at 30 degrees. It was actually less than five degrees but at that speed it felt like much more.
Bobby got up to about MPH at the end of each straight and would throw the car into the turn without lifting. In the turn he was constantly working the wheel like he was on a dirt track. On paved ovals the drivers, both then and now, put in very small steering inputs while in a turn. The yawing of the tires increased the power needed to drive the car and it would slow down to about and then would get back up to about MPH on the next straight.
Bobby was an excellent dirt track driver. That's where he started, but he also wasn't afraid to go fast, so he was an ideal driver for this course. The total lap time on the course was about seconds - approximately 35 seconds for each straightaway and almost a minute in each turn. While Bill Brodrick thought I was crazy to ride in the car, I felt that it was the least dangerous ride I had taken in a race car on a race track. Bill didn't know that I had ridden for over miles at Daytona at MPH taking test data before we had developed our race car instrumentation package.
Compared to running right next to concrete walls with the high G-forces of a banked track, the wide open spaces of Bonneville were just a Sunday drive. And I wasn't reading any data at Bonneville, I was just observing the tach readings at different track locations and assessing the handling of the car. Because of the one mile radius of the turn, the car was developing. By comparison, at Daytona at MPH on the 31 degree banking the car develops 1. For the mile run we ran something close to the maximum angle on the wing, which allowed us to get as much down force as possible on the rear tires.
For the straightaway runs, the wing was almost flat. Bobby was able to turn practice laps in the MPH range, which was fast enough to get the mile standing start record. But we were seeing tire tread chunking on the outside edge of the right side tires, particularly the right front. Since we did not have a Goodyear tire engineer with us, I spent quite a bit of time on the phone consulting with the Goodyear race people in Akron.
The closest phone was in a booth at the motel in Wendover. The problem was caused by the abrasive quality of the salt, which was tearing the rubber loose. Goodyear had several suggestions for tire pressure and camber changes on the car.
We also had Goodyear buff down several sets of Grand National dirt track tires so that they could run at MPH without throwing the tread, but would still have enough of the block type tread pattern to give a better bite than the slicks we were running there were still some dirt track races in the Grand National schedule as recently as the year before, so dirt track tires could still be located.
Goodyear air freighted these tires over night to Salt Lake City, but we did not have to use them. With different combinations of air pressure and suspension settings we got the tires to live for miles. Wednesday was taken up with preparing the car for the mile run, which we were ready to do first thing Thursday morning when the air was cooler and the engine had more power.
Because of the poor traction of the salt, it took almost the whole first lap to get the car up to full speed. The overall average speed got higher with each lap.
For the mile standing start run we were aiming at the world's unlimited record, not just the US stock car record that the other runs were breaking. I believe that Mercedes held that record at the time. FIA rules required that you break an existing record by at least one percent to be recognized. Our MPH speed was just enough to do this. On the first try at the mile run, Bobby didn't accelerate away from the start as quick as he had in practice.
After two laps, he was not running a fast enough average so we waved him in for another try. On the second try he did start well and kept ahead of the old record.
These were new world's unlimited records, independent of class. Bobby ran out of gas part way around the slow down lap. If Harry had been using only a 22 gallon tank we could not have run the full miles.
I don't know with certainty what size the tank was, but it was probably about 24 gallons. It took almost eight years for these records to be broken. At the banked 7. The speeds were These records stand today. There were two more records we wanted to go for, the standing ten mile and ten kilometer stock car records. These were conducted on the straightaway and took a total of three runs.
One end of both the ten kilometer and ten mile sections were at the same point, near the end of the straightaway. The other end of the ten kilometer section was 6. The procedure was to start at the end of the ten mile section for the first run, and get the northbound standing start time for ten miles. The second run was southbound and would get both the ten kilometer and ten mile times. The third run was northbound again, starting at the end of the ten kilometer section this time.
The only problem with running for these records was that with only twelve miles of straightaway available, there was only a mile slowdown length at each end, not nearly enough for the car running at MPH with the poor traction of the salt. So the driver would have to start getting on the brakes before the end of the ten mile section. Therefore, he did not receive the non-combat Soldier's Medal. Edson and Brigadier General R. Murphy Memorial website has scanned documents from the U.
The National Register of Historic Places Listing added the Greenville post office as historic site number in , citing it as Murphy's place of enlistment, possibly referring to the act the military termed "Accepted for service". The NRHP also shows his enlistment date as 20 June which might be the date he was accepted for service. The portraits are now on display at the museum. Army Regulation 23 June Department of the Army Administrative Publications. Chapter 2 II 3— Archived from the original PDF on 17 October Retrieved 12 October Army Center of Military History.
Lovett, to Lieutenant General A. Patch, for Audie L. Murphy to be awarded the Medal of Honor and General Patch's approval". Depends on Who's Counting". Archived from the original on 13 October Archived from the original PDF on 19 October Office of Governor Rick Perry. Archived from the original on 2 November Retrieved 29 October Retrieved 11 March Audie Murphy Memorial Website.
Retrieved 1 December United States Army Fort Hood. United States Army Fort Gordon. Archived from the original on 4 October Audie Murphy bust dedicated at Fort Sill". Retrieved March 14, — via Newspaperarchives. Murphy Memorial VA Hospital". Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved 11 June Murphy, Thursday, May 30, ". Congressional Record th Congress — United States Postal Service. Army Colonel Barry J. Fowler, 3rd Infantry Division in Bosnia, accompanying user-generated explanatory text".
Soledad Veterans Memorial Association Inc. Archived from the original on 4 March Archived from the original on 3 March Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Audie Murphy Cotton Museum. Spirit of America Festival. Archived from the original on 15 October Hollywood Walk of Fame. City of Santa Clarita. Archived from the original PDF on 5 October To Hell And Back".
Archived from the original on 28 February Retrieved 21 April Archived from the original on 23 August Keepers of the Spirit: Davis, Joe B; Parsons, Chuck The Story of the Noncommissioned Officer Corps: The Backbone of the Army.
Dept of the Army.